Henan self-study exam training to find which formal?

Henan self-study exam training to find which formal? Self-study examination is one of the important ways to improve academic qualifications. In the era when academic qualifications are valued, especially for newly graduated students or young people who have just entered the workplace, the recruitment requirements of units and enterprises will clearly state the requirements for academic qualifications. The purpose of self-study exam to improve academic qualifications is to obtain an academic qualification. If you want to pass the exam smoothly, you must know some common questions about self-study exam in advance. The following small series answers the relevant information about the self-study exam for everyone, hoping to help everyone!

If you have any questions about the self-study exam, don’t know how to choose the main college and major, and don’t know the local policy of self-study exam, click to learn now > >

Henan self-study exam training to find which formal?

Self-study exam training mainly chooses institutions, whether there are famous schools or not; Whether the campus of the institution is rich or not, and whether there are branch campuses, so as to see the strength of the institution; It also depends on the agency’s authorization to enroll students. It must also be a formal and legal educational institution. All kinds of documents and procedures must be complete, and the school license, business license and other documents are indispensable. However, when registering, you should also carefully check the business scope of the business license and whether it includes business projects related to education and training.

1. The choice of institutions is wide: whether an institution for upgrading academic qualifications is professional or not depends on whether it is related to academic qualifications, and all institutions for upgrading academic qualifications can operate. Many institutions only promote a certain school when providing services to candidates, because this is the institution they cooperate with, and the institution you want to go to is not available, which shows that the hard power is not enough.

2. Whether the campus of the institution is rich: Many institutions with upgraded academic qualifications are listed and have no fixed office location. For friends who want to upgrade their academic qualifications, it is necessary to see whether there is office space and whether there are enough branch schools, so as to judge whether they have the strength.

3. Whether to authorize enrollment: Authority does not mean authority in all aspects. It is very important whether it is authorized to enroll students in colleges and universities. If it is not authorized to enroll students, it is probably unreliable.

There are two registration opportunities for the self-study exam in one year, namely January and July, and the exam time is April and October respectively. In some places, it is four times, and the specific registration time should be based on the time released by the local education examination institute. You can apply for the self-study exam online according to the process, or you can apply for it on the spot through the self-study exam office to remind everyone to pay attention to the time of applying for the exam.

The above is related to the self-study exam, and candidates can use it as a reference, which is subject to the official announcement! Candidates who want to get more information about the self-taught examination, such as the registration time, examination time, application conditions, preparation knowledge and related news, please pay attention to the online self-taught examination channel of China Education.

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If you have any questions about the self-study exam, don’t know how to choose the main examination institution and major, and don’t know the local policy of self-study exam, click to learn now > >

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In April, 2024, all provinces registered for self-study exams in official website.

Summary of Registration Time and Entrance of Self-taught Exams in April 2024 by Provinces

How did the whistle and brilliant colors of fireworks come about?

When Xiao Bian was very young, he liked to run to the balcony to watch fireworks every New Year. After a bang, a bright and colorful fireworks burst into the distant sky, gorgeous and beautiful.
All kinds of fireworks @Wikipedia
Therefore, Xiao Bian, who was young and ignorant at that time, couldn’t help wondering … Why did a small box on the ground look like that after being ignited? How on earth are fireworks designed and made in order to show such a brilliant effect?
The picture comes from the Internet.
There are many kinds of fireworks, and the fireworks seen in general TV programs, that is, the kind that flies to the sky with a bang and then explodes, are a special kind of fireworks called fireworks.
Fireworks @Wikipedia
Fireworks bloom can be roughly divided into two stages. The first stage is the launch of the fireworks bomb: with a bang, something on the ground flew into the sky. The second stage is probably the burst of fireworks, and a firework exploded in the sky. What happened in these two stages respectively?
The internal structure of a certain kind of fireworks is probably like this [1].
Fireworks structure @pyrouniverse.com
Hit the fireworks into the sky
When we lit the fuse (fast fuse), the fuse gave the friends time to evacuate and delayed the explosion. When the fuse burns to the propellant, ignite the propellant. Propellant is generally black powder discovered by the ancient alchemist in China. After the fireworks are lit, the sound of "bang" is the explosion of this thing. The main components of black powder are sulfur, charcoal and potassium nitrate, and the reaction formula of explosion is complicated. A typical chemical reaction equation looks like this (familiar with one sulfur, two nitrates and three carbons):
This explosion reaction produces a lot of heat and high-temperature gas, which is similar to the principle of rocket launch. The high-temperature gas produces huge thrust and pushes the shell into the sky. In the process of flying high into the air, we often hear the whistling sound, which is a sound effect of fireworks. It comes from a special thermal-acoustic coupling combustion-pulsating combustion.
Pulsating combustion
Pulsating combustion is a special unstable combustion process, and the parameters such as temperature, pressure and airflow speed in the combustion zone will fluctuate periodically with time. In the process of industrial application of pulsating combustion, there will be a lot of noise radiated from the tail pipe of the burner [2]. This technology involves many nonlinear processes of thermo-acoustic coupling, large amplitude acoustic wave effect and so on, which is very complicated, so there is no relevant theory at present [3].
But the fact that there is no relevant theory doesn’t mean that we are not here or can’t use it.
People engaged in fireworks production already know that in order to make fireworks produce this whistling sound, it is necessary to use a special kind of combustion product-flute agent. Oxidizers (potassium perchlorate and potassium chlorate) and flute agents (mainly derivatives of benzene) are mixed and packed into paper or plastic tubes, and pulsating combustion will occur after ignition, resulting in crisp flute sound [4].
@ References [4]
This pulsating combustion causes thousands of violent vibrations of air every second, releasing high-frequency sound waves. Therefore, the combustion chamber loaded with flute agent and oxidant acts as a propeller, and at the same time, it also emits a sharp whistle-like sound.
In addition to the fireworks launched, there is also a famous fireworks with sound. Xiaobian’s hometown likes to call him a monkey, which is this thing:
@bilibili-av8389766
The ingredients of the propellant used in this kind of thing are potassium perchlorate and potassium hydrogen phthalate. And this potassium hydrogen phthalate, as can be seen from the above table, is also a flute agent (although the sound frequency emitted by combustion is unstable, it still produces a sound pressure of 100dB).
Burst out a firework.
After the propellant is detonated, the delay lead is ignited and the time is started. By the time the shell flies to high altitude and needs to be ignited, the delay lead is almost burned out. So the explosive was detonated and the stars were blown all over the sky. The figure of the fireworks explosion depends on the position of the stars in the shell. If the medicine makes the fireworks explode into a specific shape, it is necessary to design the arrangement of the stars in the fireworks subtly [5].
What the hell is this star? It is the most crucial and mysterious part of the whole fireworks display ~
Its main components are magnesium powder, potassium perchlorate and metal salt or metal powder [6].
Star Composition @ Paperclip-How to Make Explosive Fireworks
After the star is ignited, magnesium powder as reducing agent and potassium perchlorate as oxidizing agent burn violently, giving off a lot of light and heat (but not gas) and becoming the shining things in the fireworks.
But how did the colors of fireworks come from? This involves an important phenomenon related to physics and chemistry-flame reaction.
flame reaction
Simple metals or their compounds will evaporate into individual particles at extremely high temperature, and only individual particles can exhibit flame reaction. (There is no flame reaction in bulk solid samples, because the luminescence of bulk materials is mainly related to the movement of electrons in the materials, and there are various electrons in different movement states in bulk solid samples, so the spectrum of light emitted by bulk materials is very wide and does not present a relatively single color [7]). However, the free metal simple substance or metal ion in the flame will be excited to an excited state with higher energy at high temperature.
However, the excited atom at higher energy is unstable, and it will always transition to the most stable ground state with the lowest energy. In this process, the photon energy (hν) emitted by the atom is exactly equal to the energy difference between the excited state (energy E2) and the ground state (energy E1).
@Wikipedia
The wavelength of photons emitted in this way does not depend on the temperature of the evaporated metal particles, but only on the energy difference between the two energy levels where the transition occurs, and this energy difference is only related to the kind of atoms.
Therefore, different metal ions will have different colors. In this way, we can use various metals and metal compounds to produce various colors.
The metals or metal compounds in the stars, heated by the huge heat released by the burning of magnesium and potassium perchlorate, emit their own light through the flame reaction.
The color of flame reaction [8]
tag
It’s been more than a dozen Spring Festival from a silly child who knows nothing to today’s Xiaobian. Looking at the manuscript, I can’t help but think of myself skipping in front of fireworks more than ten years ago. Time flies, the sun and the moon fly. Although it is more and more difficult to see the fireworks bloom, their physical and chemical principles are becoming more and more clear.
Anyway, it’s the Spring Festival. While enjoying the beautiful and gorgeous fireworks, don’t miss the same beautiful and gorgeous physical and chemical principles behind the fireworks ~
Ps: Places where fireworks and firecrackers are prohibited should strictly abide by the regulations.
reference data
[1] https://steemit.com/science/@xenvy04/the-chemistry-of-fireworks-happy-fourth-of-july
Shao Dongwei, Wang Junfa, Liu Yuanjun, et al. Research and application of pulsating combustion technology [J]. Modern Agriculture, 2009 (7):41-43.
Wu Yunfei, Deng Kai, Shen Zhongliang, et al. Development of pulsating combustion technology [J]. Light Industry Machinery, 2013 (1):106-110.
Lan Haikang. The relationship between flute agent and chemical structure [J]. Fireworks Technology and Market, 1994(1):20-21.
[5] https://zhuanlan.zhihu.com/p/86164747
[6] How to make explosive fireworks
[7] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flame_test
[8] https://www.compoundchem.com/2013/12/30/the-chemistry-of-fireworks/
Editor: Luna
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Domestic beauty cosmetics have accelerated their rise, and what will sustain their development in the future?

Chao news client reporter Liu Yixin

In 2023, the smoke of double 11’s war has gradually dispersed. However, this big promotion has changed the face of the beauty industry and re-defined: the domestic beauty leader topped the Tmall beauty and skin care list for the first time in the past six years; Competition in the industry has intensified, and scientific and technological strength has become an important starting point for major domestic brands to break through. The high-quality development of China Beauty Town has attracted the attention of the industry. Recently, at the 7th China Cosmetics Industry Leaders Summit held in the town, technology and innovation became a hot word.

The high-quality development road of China Beauty Town has attracted the attention of the industry. Photography He Weiwei

The beauty industry has ushered in a new pattern.Domestic brands accelerate their rise.

Although the GMV of double 11’s beauty category was only 78.6 billion yuan in 2023, and the data declined, the leading brands of domestic beauty products still performed strongly and made a qualitative breakthrough, which led to a brand-new pattern in the beauty industry.

In 2023, double 11 Tmall’s TOP20 Brand List of Beauty and Skin Care showed that Polaiya ranked first with GMV of 2.219 billion yuan, L ‘Oré al ranked second with GMV of 2.003 billion yuan, Lancome ranked third with GMV of 1.836 billion yuan, Estee Lauder ranked fourth with GMV of 1.566 billion yuan, and Winona ranked fifth with GMV of 1.286 billion yuan.

First of all, from the list, Polaiya advanced four places, becoming the first place, Winona ranked fifth, and entered the top five for the first time. Nature Hall advanced six places, ranking 13th, and Kerfumei, which did not enter the TOP20 in 2022, ranked 17th this time.

For consumers, ranking first or last is not important, but it has unusual significance for brands and domestic beauty cosmetics, which indicates that under the new beauty pattern, domestic brands have ushered in a new development stage.

Tang Xiujie, an analyst in the beauty and nursing industry of Zheshang Securities, believes that the results of this year’s double 11 promotion show that international brands have weakened, especially Japanese and Korean brands have fallen off the list, while domestic brands have accelerated their rise.

Looking back on the e-commerce promotion in recent years, before 2015, because international brands did not pay attention to online sales, the e-commerce platform was dominated by domestic products. However, since 2016, major international brands have successively settled in the Tmall platform and made efforts. After that, domestic brands gradually lost their dominance in the e-commerce platform. Especially since 2018, domestic brands have been at a disadvantage in e-commerce sales. For example, in Tmall double 11 from 2018 to 2022, the top three or even the top four in the beauty list are international brands.

Proya Hou Juncheng: Technological innovation leads the high-quality development of domestic products.

As the leader of domestic beauty products, Polaiya’s rise and breakthrough has become the industry benchmark.

At the China Cosmetics Industry Leaders Summit, Hou Jun, Chairman of Polaiya (603605.SH), told the story of how cosmetics enterprises can achieve scientific and technological innovation and quality development based on the company’s 20-year practice.

In the first three quarters of this year, Polaiya Company achieved a total revenue of 5.249 billion yuan. This is a milestone for the company. For the first time, Polaiya has become the largest cosmetics listed company in China in terms of revenue. During the just-concluded "Double Eleven" period, Polaiya brand won the beauty category of Tmall platform and Tik Tok platform, which not only broke the best record of Polaiya brand, but also created a new history of cosmetics enterprises in China. "This is consumers’ full affirmation of Polaiya." Hou juncheng said.

"In the past few years, we have continuously increased investment in scientific research, introduced a number of advanced R&D equipment and talents at home and abroad, and established close cooperative relations with well-known raw material suppliers, scientific research institutions and universities at home and abroad, and are at the forefront of scientific research and innovation of domestic cosmetics enterprises." Hou Jun shared some specific practices of the company in scientific and technological innovation with other big coffee companies.

At the recent 20th anniversary strategy conference, Polaiya Company also disclosed the situation of Shanghai R&D Center and Hangzhou Longwu R&D Center for the first time, showing the company’s scientific and technological strength to the public in an all-round and three-dimensional way. Obviously, the R&D Innovation Center and the International Academy of Sciences have become the innovation engines of Polaiya Company. The strategy conference also unveiled the company’s 20-year-old scientific research strength work-Polaiya Energy Essence, further improved the new Polaiya Energy Series listed in September this year, and committed to providing consumers with anti-aging root solutions. It is understood that Polaiya Energy Essence will be officially listed in January next year.

Freda Gao Chunming: Continuous innovation is the only way for brands.

"China cosmetics are entering the golden age of brand rise, and global cosmetics are entering China time." Gao Chunming, deputy general manager of Freda, made his judgment clear at the China Cosmetics Industry Leaders Summit.

Dr. Yi Lian and Dr. Ai Er, owned by Freda (600223.SH), are also outstanding domestic brands in recent years. The company’s performance has grown by leaps and bounds, from 221 million yuan in 2018 to 1.969 billion yuan in 2022, an increase of nearly eight times in four years.

"From the perspective of the history of global economic development, a world-class consumption center will surely breed a world-class brand." Gao Chunming made an in-depth study on the history of the world economy and cosmetics. For example, he said, L ‘Oreal was born when the European economy rose, Estee Lauder was born when the American economy rose, Shiseido was born when the Japanese economy rose, and Amore was born when the Korean economy rose. At present, the cosmetics market in China has become the second largest market in the world, and he predicts that a world-class cosmetics brand in China will be produced in the next 10 years.

However, it is not so easy for domestic brands to stand out as world-class super brands. "To become a world-class brand, first of all, your products must have long-term vitality." Gao Chunming believes that continuous innovation is the only way. Taking Dr. Ai Er as an example, he described how brands make efforts in demand innovation, technology innovation, raw material innovation, category innovation and channel innovation. The brand broke through the scale of one billion in four years, and created a new track for micro-ecological skin care.

Gao Chunming also discussed with big coffee makers in other industries-where are the opportunities for China cosmetics brands in the future?

"The biggest opportunity is hidden in non-customers, which is a new business opportunity." Gao Chunming said that why non-customers don’t buy your products is actually more worthy of attention than why they buy them, because it will provide opportunities for brand improvement. Now there is a tendency in the industry: excessive trust in big data and algorithms. Gao Chunming believes that this may make the brand narrower and narrower. Everyone only pays attention to the target customers, and there is a high probability that they will fall into homogenization competition. Gao Chunming believes that letting non-customers see your brand advertisements will increase the satisfaction of existing customers.

Deeply cultivate scientific research and innovation, and the race of "long-term doctrine" continues.

Deng Wenhui, an industry analyst of Guolian Securities, said that according to the double 11 list of Tmall Beauty Cosmetics and the data of many third-party organizations, in 2023, domestic brands in double 11 achieved a breakthrough from "quantity" to "quality". Deng Wenhui further analyzed that there are three reasons behind the new pattern of the industry. First, consumers are more rational in placing orders and emphasize cost performance; Second, domestic brands cultivate their own internal strength, constantly increase their scientific and technological strength, and build their own "scientific ecology" in terms of self-developed ingredients and raw material innovation; Third, under cultural self-confidence, consumers no longer blindly worship foreign brands.

Photo courtesy of vision china.

In this year’s double 11 Promotion, the exclusive self-developed ingredients are often the signboard of each family, and each family continues to tap the potential in raw material innovation. In July this year, the filing data of new cosmetic raw materials of the State Food and Drug Administration showed that more than 60 new raw materials had been registered, and most of them were reported by domestic enterprises, among which the number of anti-aging ingredients was the largest. Taking the new track of synthetic biology as an example, it soon attracted the layout of companies such as Huaxi Bio, Polaiya, Betani, Freda, Juzi Bio and Marubi Co., Ltd. The existing raw materials of biosynthetic cosmetics include hyaluronic acid, collagen, astaxanthin, ergothionine, ginsenoside, polypeptide synthesized by enzymes, arbutin and so on.

Zheshang Securities Tang Xiujie believes that the competition in the beauty industry is intensifying, and if domestic products want to stand out, hard manufacturing and soft power are indispensable. The R&D strength has been the focus of domestic beauty companies’ competition, and weak brands are prone to growth bottlenecks.

In terms of R&D expenses, according to the data of the third quarterly report of cosmetics listed companies, in the first three quarters, there were five companies whose R&D expenses exceeded 100 million yuan, of which China Hi Bio (688363.SH) was 277 million yuan, Betaine (300957.SZ) was 181 million yuan, Polaiya was 128 million yuan, and shanghai jahwa (600315.SH) was 1. Judging from the year-on-year growth rate, in the first three quarters, Betani increased by 44%, Polaiya increased by 32%, Freda increased by 25%, shanghai jahwa increased by about 10%, and Huaxi Bio increased by 0%. Judging from the amount, the R&D expenses of Polaiya and Betani in the first three quarters of this year have exceeded the whole year of last year.

In terms of the number of patents, Polaiya has 234 patents, 17 new patents and 18 new patent applications in the first half of 2023. Huaxi Bio obtained 395 patents, and 58 new patents were added in the first half of the year. These patented technologies mainly focus on functional sugars and amino acids. Bettini’s patents mainly focus on Yunnan characteristic plant extracts, which is also the company’s independent research and development technology. The company claims to have a number of core technologies and patents in this field. Freda has 31 patents in the first half of the year, and 37 new products have been developed and put into production. Shanghai jahwa didn’t disclose it in the first half of last year. Only in 2022, when the annual report was disclosed, 9 national authorized invention patents and 43 patent applications were added.

Analysts believe that domestic beauty brands focus on scientific research to build their own scientific and technological strength, which is a good start, but compared with international brands, the amount and duration of investment are far from enough. For example, L ‘Oré al’s R&D investment in 2022 is as high as 1.139 billion euros, about 8.8 billion yuan. Moreover, behind every heavy product like L ‘Oré al, there is a patent technology blessing.

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