Shenzhen: Consumers will be subsidized by 15% of the sales price when purchasing qualified mobile phones, computers and other products.

  "Shenzhen Releases" WeChat official account News. On May 23rd, Shenzhen Development and Reform Commission, Shenzhen Municipal Bureau of Commerce, Shenzhen Municipal Bureau of Industry and Information Technology, Shenzhen Municipal Bureau of Transportation, Shenzhen Municipal Bureau of Culture, Radio, Film, Television, Tourism and Sports, and Shenzhen Municipal Health and Health Committee jointly issued "Several Measures for Promoting the Sustainable Recovery of Consumption in Shenzhen".

  Some measures to promote the sustainable recovery of consumption in Shenzhen

  In order to thoroughly implement the national and provincial decision-making arrangements on promoting consumption, stimulate consumption potential, expand consumer demand and boost consumer confidence, the following measures are formulated.

  First, encourage automobile consumption

  (1) Support individual consumers to purchase new energy vehicles. Individual consumers who newly purchase qualified new energy vehicles and get a license in Shenzhen will be given a subsidy of no more than 10,000 yuan/set. Fully implement the national policy of exempting new energy vehicles from vehicle purchase tax. (Responsible units: Municipal Bureau of Industry and Information Technology, Finance Bureau, Public Security Traffic Police Bureau, Shenzhen Taxation Bureau)

  (2) Increase the incremental index of ordinary cars. Add 20,000 incremental indicators for ordinary cars, and allocate them to the "unsuccessful" applicants who are still lottery and have participated in more than 60 issues (including 60 issues) through special lottery activities. The winners must purchase qualified fuel vehicles or new energy vehicles (for those who purchase new energy vehicles, the maximum subsidy is not more than 20,000 yuan/set). (Responsible units: Municipal Transportation Bureau, Industry and Information Technology Bureau, Commerce Bureau, Public Security Traffic Police Bureau, Finance Bureau)

  (3) Relax the application conditions for hybrid car indicators. Individuals with only one car registered in Shenzhen are allowed to buy qualified hybrid cars and apply for licensing indicators. (Responsible units: Municipal Transportation Bureau, Public Security Traffic Police Bureau)

  (four) to encourage tourist passenger vehicles to use new energy or clean energy. Enterprises and individual industrial and commercial households that newly purchase qualified new energy tourist passenger cars (including clean fuel passenger cars) will be given a maximum subsidy of 50,000 yuan/set. Promote party and government organs, enterprises and institutions to purchase green transportation travel services. (Responsible units: Municipal Transportation Bureau, Industry and Information Technology Bureau, Culture, Radio, Film, Television, Tourism and Sports Bureau, Finance Bureau)

  (5) Accelerate the clean replacement of garbage transfer vehicles. Coordinate the procurement of domestic waste transfer services, and accelerate the transformation of diesel waste transfer vehicles into qualified LNG, electric (including power exchange) and hydrogen fuel cell transfer vehicles in accordance with the principle of "full replacement after the contract expires". (Responsible units: Municipal Bureau of Industry and Information Technology, Urban Management and Comprehensive Law Enforcement Bureau, districts)

  (six) to promote the replacement of fuel trailers in the port. If the fuel trailer in the port is replaced by a qualified new energy vehicle (including a clean fuel vehicle), the maximum subsidy will not exceed 50,000 yuan/set. (Responsible units: Municipal Transportation Bureau, Bureau of Industry and Information Technology, Finance Bureau)

  (seven) to increase the promotion and use of new energy vehicles in the public domain. Coordinate the promotion of fuel official vehicles, police cars, state-owned vehicles and other scrapped vehicles to be updated into new energy vehicles. Accelerate the replacement of buses, cruise taxis, etc. (Responsible units: Municipal Organs Administration Bureau, Public Security Bureau, State-owned Assets Supervision and Administration Commission, Transportation Bureau, Industry and Information Technology Bureau, and all districts)

  (8) Promote the trading of used cars. Expand the pilot scope of second-hand car turnover indicators, and issue second-hand car turnover indicators to qualified second-hand car legal entities. The second-hand car distribution legal person sells the second-hand car it bought, and the value-added tax is levied at a reduced rate of 0.5%. (Responsible units: Municipal Bureau of Commerce, Transportation Bureau, Public Security Traffic Police Bureau, Shenzhen Taxation Bureau)

  (nine) to carry out automobile activities in the countryside. Residents of Shenzhen-Shantou Special Cooperation Zone who purchase new energy vehicles in Shenzhen Administrative District (New District) can apply for the increment index of pure electric cars or hybrid cars according to relevant regulations, and enjoy relevant subsidy policies. Give full play to Shenzhen’s role as a working organization in front of various counterpart assistance areas, strengthen the linkage between government and enterprises, and promote cars to the countryside. (Responsible units: Municipal Transportation Bureau, Public Security Bureau, Public Security Traffic Police Bureau, Bureau of Industry and Information Technology, Bureau of Commerce, Bureau of Rural Revitalization and Cooperation and Exchange, Finance Bureau, Shenzhen-Shantou Special Cooperation Zone)

  (10) Expand the export of new energy vehicles. Accelerate the improvement of the production capacity of new energy vehicles in our city, and support the automobile production and export enterprises registered in Shenzhen and exporting complete vehicles through Shenzhen Port to expand the export scale. Improve the level of port logistics facilitation, promote key shipping companies to set up fixed foreign trade ro-ro routes in Shenzhen Port, and fully subsidize berthing fees and port operation lump sum fees for shipping companies that carry export cars. (Responsible units: Municipal Bureau of Commerce, Bureau of Industry and Information Technology, Transportation Bureau, Finance Bureau)

  Second, expand the scale of the consumer electronics market

  (eleven) to carry out promotional activities of consumer electronic products. Combined with the themes of school season, summer promotion season, traditional festivals, etc., special promotion activities for consumer electronics will be organized in rotation during May-August, and consumers will be subsidized to buy qualified products such as mobile phones, computers (including tablet computers), headphones, stereos, smart home appliances, smart wearable devices, consumer drones, smart home robots, smart fitness equipment, etc., with a cumulative maximum of 2,000 yuan per person. Encourage telecom operators to cooperate with consumer electronics manufacturers in depth and carry out activities such as "replacement subsidy", "telephone fee reward" and "package upgrade". Support the green utilization of recycling equipment. If qualified enterprises recycle old machines and sell them in Shenzhen, they will be subsidized according to 5% of sales. (Responsible units: Municipal Bureau of Commerce, Bureau of Industry and Information Technology, Bureau of Culture, Radio, Film and Television, Tourism and Sports, Finance Bureau, Shenzhen Communications Administration)

  (XII) Expand centralized purchase orders. For the needs of party and government organs, institutions and large enterprises such as digital office and employees’ personal use, we will organize production enterprises, telecom operators and service solution providers to hold special centralized procurement activities on a regular basis. Party and government organs and state-owned enterprises are encouraged to purchase qualified consumer electronic products for counterpart assistance. (Responsible units: Municipal Bureau of Industry and Information Technology, Bureau of Commerce, State-owned Assets Supervision and Administration Commission, Finance Bureau, Rural Revitalization and Cooperation and Exchange Bureau, all districts and relevant units)

  (thirteen) the implementation of broadband upgrade for millions of users. Operators are encouraged to upgrade the broadband network speed of home users to more than 500 megabytes (including 500 megabytes) for free, and the tariff standard remains unchanged. In 2022, for operators whose broadband network speed is more than 500 megabytes (including 500 megabytes), the proportion of household users is not less than 60%. According to the number of newly upgraded users, 80 yuan subsidies will be given to each household, with a maximum of 60 million yuan for each operator. (Responsible units: Municipal Bureau of Industry and Information Technology, Finance Bureau, Shenzhen Communications Administration, districts)

  Third, promote the consumption of household appliances

  (fourteen) to carry out green energy-saving home appliances promotion. Organize household appliance production and sales enterprises to launch activities to benefit the people and make profits. During May-August, consumers will be subsidized to buy qualified household appliances such as televisions, air conditioners, refrigerators, washing machines, kitchen appliances and small household appliances according to 15% of the sales price, with a cumulative maximum of 2,000 yuan per person. (Responsible units: Municipal Bureau of Commerce, Bureau of Industry and Information Technology, Finance Bureau)

  (fifteen) the implementation of affordable housing "bag occupancy" project. Revise and improve the delivery standards of affordable housing (including public rental housing, affordable rental housing, and shared property housing), deliver fully renovated finished products to affordable housing that was completed and qualified during the year, configure basic household products such as range hoods, gas stoves, water heaters and air conditioners that meet the requirements, and carry out pilot projects for smart homes throughout the house. Encourage new commercial housing to be fully renovated and delivered, and provide necessary smart home products. (Responsible units: Municipal Housing Construction Bureau, Bureau of Industry and Information Technology, Finance Bureau, Talent Housing Group, all districts)

  Fourth, do a good job in the prevention and control of normalized epidemics

  (sixteen) increase the intensity of electronic sentry layout. Party and government organs, schools, hospitals and other units shall all install electronic sentries in principle. All districts encourage office buildings, industrial parks and other workplaces to upgrade and transform "electronic sentry+gate" according to epidemic prevention requirements. Eligible transformation subjects will be given a subsidy of no more than 100,000 yuan according to 20% of their total investment. (Responsible unit: relevant units directly under the municipal government, Municipal Finance Bureau, districts)

  (seventeen) actively promote the application of high-tech anti-epidemic products. In isolation hotels, shelter hospitals, special isolation places and other fields, we will increase the popularization and application of high-tech epidemic prevention products such as food delivery and disinfection robots, video intelligent analysis systems, water-based self-disinfection film-forming materials, millimeter-wave radar, epidemic prevention intelligent environmental protection mobile toilets, and nucleic acid detection kiosks. The municipal finance will subsidize the relevant expenses of each district by no more than 3 million yuan according to 20% of the total investment. (Responsible units: Municipal Science and Technology Innovation Committee, Health and Wellness Committee, Finance Bureau, districts)

  (eighteen) to expand the application of consumer anti epidemic products. Health departments and public hospitals have increased the procurement scale of nucleic acid sampling materials, testing equipment and reagents, and the city’s large-scale nucleic acid testing capacity has reached 2 million tubes/day. (Responsible units: Municipal Health and Wellness Commission, Finance Bureau, districts)

  (nineteen) improve the proportion of domestic procurement of medical devices. Implement the national medical equipment procurement policy, strictly examine and approve imported equipment, and increase the promotion of domestic medical equipment. (Responsible units: Municipal Health and Wellness Commission, Finance Bureau, Bureau of Industry and Information Technology, Development and Reform Commission, Market Supervision Bureau and all districts)

  (twenty) to establish a green channel for innovative drugs. Open a green channel in the city’s drug and medical consumables trading platform, implement online procurement for innovative drugs and medical consumables that meet the listing conditions, and implement "hanging with the newspaper" to support innovative drugs and medical consumables to enter the market in time. (Responsible unit: Municipal Medical Insurance Bureau)

  V. Expanding the market scale of Xinchuang products

  (twenty-one) increase the promotion of Xinchuang products. Formulate the recommendation catalogue of Xinchuang products, organize docking exchange meetings, and subsidize qualified user units that purchase more than 500,000 yuan according to 3% of the purchase amount. (Responsible units: Municipal Bureau of Industry and Information Technology, Finance Bureau, districts)

  (twenty-two) to improve the application ratio of Xinchuang products. In principle, the purchase proportion of Xinchuang products in new office systems and business systems shall not be less than 20% in key areas such as finance, energy, education, medical care, telecommunications and transportation; The procurement proportion of Xinchuang products in the newly added key information infrastructure shall not be less than 40% for party and government organs and state-owned enterprises. (Responsible units: Municipal Bureau of Industry and Information Technology, Finance Bureau, Shenzhen Communications Administration, relevant units and districts)

  Sixth, promote the consumption of outdoor cultural tourism

  (twenty-three) actively carry out cultural and sports activities on the premise of doing a good job in epidemic prevention and control. Give full play to the advantages of Shenzhen’s urban ecological context of "mountains and seas are linked together" and "one ridge, one belt and twenty corridors", and hold a series of tourism activities such as the Gold Coast Tourism Festival and Red Tourism. Encourage the general public to go outdoors, support sports social organizations to organize fitness, camping and other activities in the sinking community, and cooperate with brand manufacturers and distributors that meet the theme of the event to carry out promotional activities. Encourage trade unions at all levels to organize fitness activities and use trade union funds to purchase fitness services for employees according to regulations. Enrich and promote urban cultural menus, actively carry out cultural activities such as grass music festival, beach music festival, Cantonese Opera Week, Youth Art Week, Reading Month and Beautiful Sunday, and run sports events such as marathon and rowing. (Responsible units: Municipal Bureau of Culture, Radio, Film and Television, Tourism and Sports, Urban Management and Comprehensive Law Enforcement Bureau, Federation of Trade Unions, Finance Bureau and all districts)

  (twenty-four) held a trend theme consumption activities. Support joint-venture merchants in key business districts to hold themed consumption festivals such as coffee and tea, carry out activities such as tasting, teaching, salons and exhibitions, broaden consumption experience scenes, and create a fashionable and leisure city lifestyle. (Responsible unit: Municipal Bureau of Commerce, districts)

  (twenty-five) to promote the "one-click reservation" full coverage of sports facilities. Encourage schools and social sports facilities to be open and shared with the public, and promote the "one door, two doors, two entrances in the morning and evening" safety isolation transformation of completed and qualified schools. By the end of June 2022, the school, society, public welfare and other sports facilities will be fully covered by "one-click reservation". Make good use of financial funds such as sports lottery public welfare fund, and make an appointment for sports venues through the "I Shenzhen" platform to enjoy a minimum discount of 60% to promote the growth of sports consumption. (Responsible units: Municipal Bureau of Culture, Radio, Film, Tourism and Sports, Finance Bureau, districts)

  (twenty-six) to promote high-quality intelligent fitness equipment. More than 200 convenience fitness facilities will be built or rebuilt in communities, parks, squares, institutions and other places, and a number of fitness equipment with wide audience, flexibility and high technology will be popularized. Encourage commercial buildings, factories, parks and other key places to purchase and use qualified fitness equipment, and give a maximum subsidy of not more than 10,000 yuan according to 5% of the total actual purchase amount to create a new scene of national fitness. (Responsible units: Municipal Bureau of Culture, Radio, Film, Tourism and Sports, Finance Bureau, districts)

  Seven, expand the consumption of bulk commodities.

  (twenty-seven) to carry out the linkage promotion activities of refined oil and "Shenzhen products". Continue to promote "Shenzhen products" into supermarkets, farmers, community fresh stores and e-commerce, encourage gas station direct-operated convenience stores and their online shopping malls to put "Shenzhen products" on shelves, and issue consumer vouchers to consumers who have reached a certain amount in a single refueling or prepaid recharge for purchasing qualified "Shenzhen products" in gas station direct-operated convenience stores or their online shopping malls, and give certain financial subsidies. (Responsible units: Municipal Market Supervision Bureau, Commerce Bureau and Finance Bureau)

  (twenty-eight) support enterprises to set up procurement centers and sales companies. For the wholesale and retail leading enterprises that set up purchasing centers in Shenzhen in 2022, 50,000 yuan will be awarded for every 100 million yuan of their purchasing amount in 2022. For the sales company established by manufacturing enterprises in Shenxin in 2022, 500,000 yuan will be awarded for every 100 million yuan of retail sales in 2022. The maximum reward for a single enterprise is no more than 10 million yuan. (Responsible unit: Municipal Bureau of Commerce and Finance Bureau)

  Eight, the safe and orderly resumption of professional exhibitions

  (29) Establish a "white list" system, and support advantageous fashion industries such as clothing, furniture, jewelry, watches, glasses and leather to hold professional exhibitions for professional purchasers on the premise of doing a good job in the normal epidemic prevention work of the participating parties, so as to help the fashion consumer market recover. (Responsible unit: Municipal Bureau of Commerce)

  Nine, increase the "invoice" activities.

  (30) Add 10 million yuan of "prize invoice" funds to carry out "prize invoice" activities in the whole city around the fields of retail, catering, cultural tourism, accommodation, sports, etc. The activity period is from May 1 to the end of the year. (Responsible units: Shenzhen Municipal Taxation Bureau, Municipal Bureau of Commerce and Finance Bureau)

  This policy will be implemented as of the date of issuance and will be valid until December 31, 2022. The measures stipulated in the policy shall be formulated and promulgated by the relevant responsible units.

Disease control experts talk about flu prevention in the office: wash your hands frequently and don’t encourage you to go to work sick.

  Cctv newsOn January 25th, a press conference was held in National Health Commission to introduce the prevention and control of infectious diseases in winter and spring and the prevention and response of common diseases during festivals. Li Zhongjie, a researcher at the Center for Disease Control and Prevention of China, said in response to a reporter’s question that some non-drug interventions are very important for the flu in a confined space.

  journalistThe question is about influenza prevention. At present, most of the working environment is a writing room. In this state, one person may get sick, which may cause everyone to get sick. How to prevent influenza in this case?

  Li ZhongjieA place with a relatively closed writing room is indeed a high incidence place for the spread of respiratory diseases, especially in winter and spring, when it is cold and airtight outdoors, it is easier to spread pathogens. For the flu, some non-drug interventions are very important in a confined space, that is, some good hygiene habits, especially in the writing room mentioned just now, such a specific place. If an individual has flu-like symptoms,Patients are not encouraged to go to work sick.For the sake of your own health and the health of others around you, you mustDo isolation.. If the illness gets worse, you should seek medical treatment in time, which is a good protection for yourself and others.

  Emphasize again aboutWash your hands frequently.This habit is simple and easy to do, but if you really develop good habits and stick to them, you can prevent many other diseases, including influenza, including other contact-borne diseases.

  In such a specific gathering place,Environmental cleanliness and hygieneVery important, the spread of influenza is mainly through two ways. One way is close, the droplets spread between the patient and the surrounding people. When the patient coughs or sneezes, the droplets are directly sprayed into the mouth of the surrounding people. In addition, after the virus is discharged from the patient, it will stay on the surface of the object for a period of time. If people around it touch the mouth and nose again, it is also a way to spread the flu. Therefore, it emphasizes the daily cleanliness of personal working environment and public environment, and insists on daily cleaning.

  Attachment: Personal daily protection knowledge of influenza provided by Health and Health Commission.

  To prevent respiratory infectious diseases such as influenza, we should first start with personal daily protection, and pay attention to good personal hygiene habits at ordinary times, including:

  (1) Wash your hands frequently;

  (2) Regularly open windows for ventilation;

  (three) take the initiative to vaccinate against influenza before the arrival of the influenza epidemic season;

  (4) During the influenza epidemic season, the elderly and patients with chronic diseases should try their best to avoid going to crowded places and contact with patients with respiratory infections;

  (5) After flu-like symptoms appear, keep good respiratory hygiene habits, cover your mouth and nose with paper towels and towels when coughing or sneezing, wash your hands after coughing or sneezing, and try to avoid touching your eyes, nose or mouth.

  (6) When family members have flu patients, they should try to avoid contact with each other, especially when there are elderly people and patients with chronic diseases at home.

  (7) When the parents of children with flu symptoms go to the hospital for treatment, they should also do a good job in protecting the children and themselves (such as wearing masks) to avoid cross-infection.

The stock market closed on the 6 th: the Shanghai Composite Index fell 5.58%, and more than 1,000 shares in the two cities fell.

  Beijing, Beijing, May 6 (Xie Yiguan) On the 6 th, the three major stock indexes of A shares gapped lower and continued to fall in intraday trading. Individual stocks generally fell, and the industry sector was exhausted. The three major stock indexes all fell below the 60-day moving average, the Shanghai Composite Index fell below 3,000 points, and the risk was 2,900 points. More than 1,000 stocks in the two cities fell.

  At the close, the Shanghai Composite Index dropped 171.88 points, or 5.58%, to close at 2906.46 points. The Shenzhen Component Index fell more than 700 points, down 7.56%, and then lost 9000 points after falling below the 10,000-point mark, closing at 8943.52 points. The Growth Enterprise Market Index fell 7.94%, falling below the 1600 and 1500 mark and closing at 1494.89. The turnover of the two cities in the whole day was 657.912 billion yuan, which was significantly enlarged compared with previous trading days.

  Today, the A-share sector all fell green. Brokers in the industry sector almost fell, while telecom operations, IT equipment and software services were among the top losers, falling more than 8%. The banking sector with the smallest decline also fell more than 2%. In the concept sector, domestic software, 5G concepts and chip concepts fell by over 9%.

  On the disk, the stocks in the two cities are generally falling, with only 109 stocks closing up, 3,467 stocks falling and 1,147 stocks falling. Among the limit stocks, the GEM has become a concentrated place, with over 300 GEM stocks falling. It is worth noting that there are more than 100 5G concept stocks among the stocks that have fallen below the limit.

  Not only A shares, but also Hong Kong stocks were under pressure on the 6th. As of press time, the Hang Seng Index fell more than 3% to 29,062.57 points. The index of state-owned enterprises also fell more than 3% to 11161.9 points; The red chip index fell more than 2.9% to 4,483.47 points.

  On the 6th, the central parity of RMB against the US dollar was lowered by 58 basis points to 6.7344, the lowest since February 20th. In the morning, the offshore RMB fell sharply against the US dollar, falling below the 6.80 mark and once rushing to 6.8211.

  On the same day, the Central Bank of China announced that a lower deposit reserve ratio will be implemented for small and medium-sized banks from May 15, and about 1,000 county-level rural commercial banks can enjoy this preferential policy, releasing about 280 billion yuan of long-term funds.

  It is worth noting that on the 6th, A-shares went northward with a net outflow of 5.188 billion yuan, including 3.072 billion yuan from Shanghai Stock Connect and 2.116 billion yuan from Shenzhen Stock Connect. In the past April, the net outflow of northbound funds was 17.997 billion yuan, the second highest in a single month in history.

  However, MSCI’s first increase in the proportion of A shares from 5% to 10% will take effect at the end of May. CICC estimates that the proportion of passive funds may be around 20%, and about 20-30 billion yuan will enter the market around the end of May.

  According to a recent report of CICC, the short-term pressure of A-shares has been released after previous adjustment, and the overall valuation is not high. Therefore, the future outlook of A-shares should not be overly pessimistic, and structural opportunities may still be positive, focusing on the general trend of consumption upgrading and industrial upgrading.

  On April 30th, the National Bureau of Statistics and China Mining Association released data. In April, the purchasing managers’ index (PMI) of manufacturing industry was 50.1%, down 0.4 percentage points from the previous month, and remained in the expansion range. Guangfa Hang Seng believes that the structural contradiction of China’s economy still exists, and the economy is in transition to recovery, and the market will still repeatedly play games around theme stocks.

  Some securities analysts believe that compared with before and after the Spring Festival, the market’s expectation of economic and policy trends is more uncertain. However, many institutions believe that although the unilateral rise in the first stage has passed, the safer configuration window in the market outlook needs to wait further, and the market is expected to enter the second stage.

  Haitong Securities Strategy Team issued a document saying that this wave of adjustment since 3288 points of the Shanghai Composite Index belongs to the retreat after the first-stage valuation of the bull market has been repaired and increased. In the short term, the phased adjustment has not yet ended, and it is necessary to wait for the fundamental relay when the future rest ends and enters the second wave of the bull market.

  Founder Securities pointed out that the next four weeks will still be an important observation window. In the first week after the May Day holiday, if the Zhouyang line can be closed, it will help to resolve the risk of further decline, which deserves special attention. (End)

The competition is just around the corner, and the Shougang ski jumping platform starts to make snow! Why use "ice snow"?

Introduction: Actually, the snow used in the competition does not depend on nature, but relies on funa technology.artificial snowHow to "mass production"? What is "ice snow"?
The 2023/2024 season International Snow Federation Single Board and Freestyle Ski Platform World Cup, hosted by the International Snow Federation and co-hosted by China Ski Association, Beijing Municipal Sports Bureau and Beijing Shijingshan District People’s Government, will be held in "Snow Flying", the ski platform of Shougang from November 30th to December 2nd.
On November 17th, the snow-making work of Shougang ski jumping platform was officially started. The snow-making work will last until November 27th. After the snow-making work is completed, athletes will be trained before the competition.
(Source: Beijing Evening News)
Snow quality is an important guarantee for ski jumping events. Because this year’s competition time is earlier than in previous years and the weather temperature is higher, the problem of snow making has attracted everyone’s attention.
Such worries are actually unnecessary. The development of snow-making technology is enough for China to realize "freedom of using snow".
Artificial snow is safer and more controllable.
Considering the uncertainty of natural weather process, especially snowfall, international events of snow sports generally use artificial snow to lay snow tracks. The reason is that, on the one hand, funa’s technology is artificially controllable, so it is not necessary to "rely on the sky to eat"; On the other hand, the threshold of this technology is relatively low-as long as the temperature is lower than 0℃, the snow machine can work.
"Usually, funa uses a’ snow cannon’ type snow machine. The principle of this machine is divided into two types. One is to use an ice-making device to produce a small piece of ice, and then use the piece of ice as raw material to make snow; The other is the traditional high-pressure water mixed with air to make snow. " Su Zhengjun, a senior engineer at the Weather Modification Center of China Meteorological Bureau, said.
The traditional artificial snow is to inject water into a special nozzle or spray gun, which uses high-pressure air to divide the water flow into tiny particles. When these water droplets meet the cold outside air, they will quickly solidify into ice crystals and become the well-known snowflakes before landing.
"Artificial snow takes a short time to form and grows fast, and the shape of snowflakes is basically the same. Snowfall in natural weather will have obvious changes in hardness the next day. " Su Zhengjun explained.
In the early morning, when the outdoor temperature is low, the natural snow usually has a high degree of solidification. At this time, the snow is hard, similar to "ice slag". Although this state of snow will make skiers reach a faster sliding speed, it also makes the snowboard’s grip on the ground poor. Especially for beginners, if the soft natural snow is not compacted, the snowboard is very easy to fall into the snow, causing accidents such as rollover and emergency stop.
▲ The smooth machine-pressed snow trail is also called "noodle snow" by fans, and skiing on the machine-pressed snow trail is compared to "eating noodles". The picture shows the snowy road of Changbai Mountain International Resort in Jilin (Source: Xinhua News Agency)
Create a "rubber runway" on the snow
It is easy to understand that artificial snow can help us get rid of our dependence on natural snowfall. So why do some winter sports tracks still use funa in areas with abundant snow and snowfall all the year round?
This has to mention another advantage of funa: customization. According to the needs of different events and different venues, artificial snow can freely adjust the particle size, water content and hardness of snowflakes.
For example, alpine skiing, as a traditional event in the Winter Olympics, has always been known as the "jewel in the crown of the Winter Olympics" because of its strong ornamental value, but the participants in this project are very fast (the top speed can reach 248 kilometers per hour) and the danger is very great, so the requirements for the track are more stringent. In order to build a snow trail that meets the international standards of alpine skiing, the snow used is not ordinary natural snow, but artificial "ice-like snow".
The so-called icy snow is used to describe a state of snow quality on ski resorts. In this state, the density of snowflakes is about 0.65 g/cm3, and the surface of the snow trail remains crystalline, just like a thin "ice shell", which is similar to the ice surface. This kind of snow trail has high hardness and is not easy to be destroyed. It can ensure that the surface of the snow trail is not deformed when the athletes turn at high speed. No matter which time the athletes play, the state of the snow trail is the same and relatively perfect.
▲ Competition-level snow trails are more dense and "more porcelain", sliding faster, but falling more painful (Source: "Chai Know" WeChat WeChat official account)
If icy snow is used to pave the pavement for alpine skiing, it is like building a "plastic track" in the snow, which can not only reduce the friction between the track surface and snowboards and significantly improve the athletes’ performance, but also improve the athletes’ comfort when skiing, protect their body joints and prolong their professional sports career as much as possible.
Shougang ski platform, using crushed ice to make snow.
The snow-making of Shougang ski jumping platform adopted the method of breaking ice to make snow. One side of the ice is crushed into snow powder by an ice crusher, and the snow powder is leveled and compacted by a snowmobile, and piled up from the bottom of the big platform from bottom to top, and the snowy road is paved. After the track is paved, the Xiang Xue surface will be sprayed with water and salt to form the final "ice-like snow" to ensure that the snow conditions of each athlete are basically the same when they slide.
Snow quality is an important guarantee for ski jumping events. "Ice snow" can not only improve athletes’ performance and ski comfort, but also protect athletes’ health. The team has many years’ experience and has served large-scale events such as the Winter Olympics. The team will also communicate with athletes on the quality of snow to satisfy their feelings.
Different from other temporary venues, Shougang ski platform, as the world’s first permanently reserved and used platform competition venue, can meet the load-bearing requirements of snowmobiles in track construction, which also creates a precedent for snowmobiles to lay snow trails on the platform.
(Source: Beijing Evening News)
Snow preservation and snow storage technology to ensure track quality
In fact, for a long time, building a high-quality ice-like snow track has been a technical difficulty in China’s ice and snow industry. In order to welcome the Beijing Winter Olympics and Paralympic Winter Games, researchers have made unremitting efforts to establish the territorial parameters for making ice-like snow in Yanqing and Zhangjiakou in Beijing. At the same time, with the help of complete snow-making techniques of water injection and compaction, qualified ice-like snow that meets the climatic conditions of continental monsoon region has been successfully made. Natural snowfall in winter in the local mountainous areas has become the "landscape snow" to decorate the Winter Olympic Games area.
In fact, for the high-standard Winter Olympics Road, natural snowfall is a "burden". If there is snowy weather, the soft natural snow will lead to the "mirror-smooth" icy snow track falling short. In addition, because Beijing Winter Olympics and Paralympic Winter Games are in the alternating period of winter and spring, they may encounter other extreme weather, such as sudden rain, which will cause thin ice on the track surface and increase the risks faced by athletes in the competition.
▲ On February 23, 2021, the staff of the National Alpine Ski Center in Yanqing Division ("Xuefeiyan") were inspecting and trimming the track (Source: Xinhua News Agency)
After the planning of scientific research personnel, if it is really "bad weather", the staff will immediately use the snow-pressing machine to re-compact the snow trail and carry out emergency finishing on the track. At the same time, in order to ensure the quality of the track, they will also use automatic measuring instruments such as ice and snow hardness tester and ice and snow particle size meter for quick detection, so as to effectively ensure the quality of snow and resume the normal race in the shortest time.
It is reported that in order to ensure sufficient snow during the competition, the 2022 Beijing Winter Olympics also made a bold attempt in snow storage: when the temperature is low in winter, make qualified snow in advance, and then store it in a flat site until the next year.
This seemingly impossible scheme has passed the feasibility test as early as 2017. The Beijing Winter Olympic Organizing Committee has successfully carried out the snow storage experiment in Yanqing Shi Jinglong Ski Resort. After the test of the following spring and summer, more than 60% of artificial snow was successfully stored.
Related reading:
How many steps does it take to build an icy snow track?
Building an international and high-level ice-like snow track for Olympic events is not only due to the snow machine. At present, the icy snow track can be divided into two categories: racing track and competitive track. Take the ice-covered snow racing track as an example;
First, the snowmobile needs to open the snow trail, break the snow blocks and loosen the snow surface;According to the location of the track and the temperature at that time, inject water into the snow-only in this way can we ensure that the track has a certain strength and enough elasticity;The embryonic form of an icy snow track is basically formed by constantly turning over the wet snow and pressing it evenly again and again.
▲ Different from the watering method of the racing track, the competitive track adopts the "Z-shaped water injector" water injection method (Source: Beijing Daily)
After that, the staff should ensure that the thickness of the ice-like snow layer is consistent, and there are no big holes in the snowy road. After confirming that everything is correct, flatten the track and let the snow layer form a shiny "ice shell" from bottom to top;After completing all the steps, the staff also need to clean up the floating snow on the track.At this point, a qualified "mirror-like" icy snow track can be put into use.
Author/Reporter Wang Xueying
Editor/Ding Lin New Media Editor/Fang Yongzhen
Interview experts:
Su Zhengjun (Senior Engineer, Weather Modification Center, China Meteorological Bureau)
Source: Beijing Science and Technology News, part of which is integrated with Beijing Evening News.