Xiaomi car big news! Exposure of photos, body parameters, etc. Xiaomi car will be produced by itself.

K diagram 01810_0

  On the afternoon of November 15, the entry "Xiaomi Automobile" rushed.Hot search.

  On the same day, the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology issued the "Road Motor Vehicle Manufacturers and Products""(the 377th batch), two Xiaomi brand pure electric cars are listed.

  It is reported that Xiaomi’s first car is a pure electric car, the models are SU7 and SU7 Max, and the length of the car is 4.997 meters. The biggest difference between the two models lies in the power. The formerThe peak power is 220KW, and the latter is 275KW, or it is a high-performance version.They are iron phosphate.(Xiangyang Fudi) and ternary lithium ion (), in which Xiangyang Foday Battery belongs to.

  The contents of the announcement show that the models of Xiaomi brand pure electric cars are BJ7000MBEVR2 and BJ7000MBEVA1, and the name of the declared enterprise isGroup off-road vehicle Co., Ltd., the declared production address is "No.21 Courtyard, Huanjing Road, Beijing Economic and Technological Development Zone".

  The reporter learned from Tianyancha that on November 3, Xiaomi Jingming Technology Co., Ltd. Beijing No.1 Branch was established, with Lei Yun as the head and its business scope including, data processing services, communication equipment sales, electronic products sales, etc., the head office is Xiaomi Jingming Technology Co., Ltd. The registered address of this branch is Building 9, No.21 Courtyard, Huanjing Road, Beijing Economic and Technological Development Zone.

  According to the current laws and regulations, domesticAutomobile production enterprises must obtain two qualifications before they can produce and sell: first, the development and reform commission put on record the production projects of automobile investment enterprises, and automobile enterprises need to prove their own financing ability, research and development ability, production capacity, quality assurance and other strengths, which are recognized by the development and reform commission. After obtaining this qualification, enterprises need to build factories within 2 years and sell vehicles within 3 years; Second, it is the qualification of automobile production enterprises in charge of the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, and automobile enterprises need to meet the Regulations on the Administration of Automobile Production Enterprises and Products Access.

  In August this year, it was reported that Xiaomi had been approved by the National Development and Reform Commission to produce electric vehicles. Now it has won the "Car-making Admission Ticket" from the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, which means that Xiaomi has obtained the automobile production qualification.

  Officially listed in the first half of 2024.

  Since Lei Jun announced Xiaomi’s entry into the smart car industry, the dynamics of Xiaomi’s car have been receiving much attention.

  In August this year, some netizens said that they met four disguised Xiaomi cars flying on the Urumqi-Changji urban expressway. On August 19th, Lei Jun, founder, chairman and CEO of Xiaomi Group, also appeared in Xinjiang, and released a "Test # Xiaomi mixfold3# Leica Optics, Four Shots and Five Focuses". Some careful netizens noticed that the banner words pulled up in the photo were suspected of "fighting for Xiaomi car".

  In October 2023, Lei Jun announced that Xiaomi Automobile is progressing smoothly and will be officially listed in the first half of 2024. According to Xiaomi’s announcement, Xiaomi officially entered the field of smart electric vehicles and will invest 10 billion US dollars in the next 10 years. Lei Jun believes that smart electric vehicles will be the broadest development track in the next 10 years.

  At the Xiaomi new product launch conference held in October this year, Xiaomi released the operating system 澎湃 OS, which is not only suitable for mobile devices such as mobile phones, but also will be installed on Xiaomi cars. According to Lei Jun, Xiaomi 澎湃 OS completely rewrites the underlying architecture based on the integration of deeply evolved Android and self-developed Vela system, and has made a public base for the future tens of billions of devices and tens of billions of connections.

  October 16th, Tianfeng InternationalGuo Ming has recently released.It is said that Xiaomi’s first car is expected to be released in 2024, with an estimated shipment of 50,000-60,000 units.

  Guo Ming said in the report that Huawei’s new M7 sales exceeded expectations, symbolizing that the focus of competition in China’s electric vehicle market has shifted to autonomous driving, software, marketing and channels due to the high industrial division of labor. He believes that such a new competitive pattern is conducive to Xiaomi’s entry into the automobile market.

  He also said that the price of Xiaomi’s first car will be less than 300,000 yuan, and the key selling points include automatic driving, software ecology, 800V fast charging and power configuration.

  Xiaomi automobile will produce itself.

  According to the information released by the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, although the declared enterprise name of Xiaomi Automobile is BAIC Group, the production address is shown as the location of Xiaomi Automobile’s self-built factory.

  Reporter fromIts platform has learned that Xiaomi Automobile Factory is built in Yizhuang, Beijing, and is located in Majuqiao Intelligent Manufacturing Base (intelligent manufacturing base) in Yizhuang New Town (Tongzhou District), Beijing. The total investment of the project is expected to be 63 billion yuan.

  It is understood that Xiaomi Automobile Factory will be built in two phases. The annual production capacity of the first and second phases is 150,000 vehicles, and the total production capacity can reach 300,000 vehicles/year after the factory officially lands.

  During the construction of Xiaomi Automobile Factory, the company widely recruits talents related to vehicle production and vehicle technology. According to the recruitment information of Xiaomi official website, the company has a talent demand for production managers, workshop safety engineers and lean engineers in automobile workshops in Beijing, in stamping, die casting, die casting molds, die casting machine processing, body, painting, sheet metal and so on.Production-related jobs also have more demand for people.

  In addition, Xiaomi is also building its own car sales channels to prepare for nationwide sales. From September to October, 2023, Xiaomi Jingming Technology Co., Ltd. (a wholly-owned subsidiary of Xiaomi Intelligent Technology Co., Ltd.) successively established subsidiaries in Wuhan, Shenzhen, Xi ‘an, Hangzhou, Guangzhou, Shanghai and Suzhou. The business scope of the newly established company covers new energy sales and other businesses.

  In fact, in order to successfully enter the car-making industry, Xiaomi began to make continuous high-intensity investment in the automobile field many years ago. Yangtze millet industryHeshunwei Capital is an important investor in Xiaomi Department.

  Shunwei Capital of Lei Jun Holdings participated in the investment in 2015.A round of financing, participated in B round of financing in 2016, and participated in 2017.A+ round of financing. In the same year, Shunwei Capital led the A-round financing of Momenta, a smart driving startup, and gave continuous support in B-round, C-round and C+ financing.

  In August, 2021, Xiaomi wholly acquired DeepMotion Tech Limited, an autonomous driving company, and continued to increase its R&D capabilities in terms of intelligent driving perception, positioning, planning and control. Deep Motion Technology has a wide range of layouts in high-precision positioning, high-precision maps and 3D scene reconstruction.

  The automobile industry entered the Warring States period.

  Although Xiaomi automobile has obtained the production qualification, the competition in the automobile industry has become increasingly fierce. Can the fledgling Xiaomi automobile "share a piece of cake"?

  Liu Feilei, secretary of the board of directors of Guangzhou Automobile Ai ‘an, recently said: "The automobile industry is entering the Warring States Period, and resources are accelerating to focus on head enterprises." He believes that in 2023, the price war in the automobile market will become fierce, and the market competition will enter the stage of "elimination", and 3-5 first-class head enterprises will be formed in the future. In 2022, the top five brands in the new energy vehicle market accounted for 50.1% of the market sales, and it is estimated that the top five brands will account for 80% of the sales in 2030.

  Previously, Lei Jun also said: "When the electric vehicle industry enters a mature stage, the top five brands in the world will occupy more than 80% of the market share. In other words, the only way to succeed is to become one of the top five, and the annual shipment exceeds 10 million vehicles. Competition will be cruel. "

  In addition to the new forces of building cars, traditional car companies have also transformed into new energy tracks, and they have competitive advantages in terms of financial strength and experience in building cars, which has provided some pressure for the new forces of building cars.

  The research report pointed out that the smart electric vehicle industry is fiercely competitive, and the product strength of independent brands and new forces is rapidly improving. In the next few years, cost-effective models are expected to accelerate their listing. Factors such as price competition may also cause the risk that new car sales are less than expected.

  It is believed that the advantages of supply chain, software, users, ecology and channels will help Xiaomi to occupy a place in the smart car market, and it is expected to achieve the goal of selling 100,000 vehicles a year and turning its gross profit into a positive one faster than other new car-making forces, thus opening up an additional valuation space of the order of 100 billion. However, if Xiaomi wants to make a car successful, it will face high R&D expenditure in the early stage, subsequent sales increase and gross profit.When to quickly return to a healthy level and other challenges.

  Exploring Xiaomi automobile production base: small batch trial production has been realized, and 900,000 vehicles will be sold in three years.

  Understand the equity relationship between Beijing Off-road, Beiqi Blue Valley and Beijing Auto.

  Xiaomi automobile finally appeared: production qualification "borrowed" BAIC Group will push lithium iron and ternary battery versions.

  Xiaomi automobile sends heavy news again! The launch date of the new car is approaching.

  There is big news from Xiaomi’s car. Who are the suppliers of the industrial chain? Listed companies intensively respond to cooperation trends.

Reporter’s investigation: Why is the frequent hot search for "privately demolished load-bearing walls" repeatedly banned?

  Beijing, China, October 26 (Reporter Guo Jiali) "Construction started on the first floor, and I can feel a slight shake when I live on the 13th floor." Recently, Ms. Yang from Nanchong, Sichuan reported to Yangguang. com that it cost more than 500,000 yuan to buy this house, another 120,000 yuan to decorate it, and all her savings were spent. I didn’t know that just after living for a year and a half, cracks appeared in the house.

  According to an announcement provided by Ms. Yang, Nanchong Fuli Commercial Management Center and Nanchong Jiahong Property Management Co., Ltd. carried out construction on the first floor of Building No.4 without the consent of the owners. Ms. Yang said that the construction party plans to divide the 5.9-meter-high first floor into two floors, and drill holes with rhinestones, which passed through the load-bearing columns nearly 80 cm thick, causing some houses to crack, posing a safety hazard to the residents of the building.

  Mr. Tang, a resident of the building, said that cracks appeared in the house, which may be no problem at ordinary times, but Sichuan is an earthquake-prone area, and once an earthquake occurs, there will be security risks. The house that ordinary people have worked hard to save money to buy cannot be lived in fear.

  Since the beginning of this year, four people have been detained from the "privately demolished load-bearing wall incident" in Limin Academy Community of Harbin, and then they went to Zhaoqing, Guangdong Province to violently decorate "Open 42 Suites" … … The problem of load-bearing wall being demolished is frequently searched.

  According to the incomplete statistics of the media, among the 49 building collapse accidents in China since 2012, 25 were caused by the unauthorized demolition and modification of the main structure of the existing building or adding stories, changing the use function and increasing the load, accounting for more than 50%.

  In order to eradicate this chaos, on June 9 this year, the Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development issued the Notice on Further Strengthening the Safety Management of Interior Decoration of Urban Houses, clarifying the responsibilities of all parties and relevant departments involved in decoration activities, including design units, decoration enterprises, property service enterprises and local governments.

  The load-bearing column is perforated by a diamond (photo courtesy of the interviewee from Yangguang. com)

  Why can’t we tear down the load-bearing wall privately?

  "When we took the new house, there were no such cracks at all. Since the load-bearing pillars were laid on the first floor, the house cracked." Ms. Yang said.

  She said that the merchants on the first floor put the load-bearing columns through all sides, with a diameter of 30 mm, ten holes on each side of the central column and four holes on each side of the side load-bearing column.

  The live pictures and videos provided by Ms. Yang show that the steel bars in the load-bearing columns on the first floor have been drilled, and the upper and lower rows have been drilled through by rhinestones. Cracks have appeared in the kitchen and living room walls of houses on the sixth floor, and cracks have also appeared in the bedroom walls of households on the ninth floor.

  Cracks appear in the wall of the household restaurant (Photo courtesy of the interviewee from Yangguang. com)

  An announcement signed by Ms. Yang to the reporter as "Nanchong Fuli Commercial Management Center" showed that Nanchong Fuli Commercial Management Center indicated that it had entrusted Nanchong Hengrui Testing Co., Ltd. for technical appraisal, and the appraisal conclusion of Nanchong Hengrui Testing Co., Ltd. was that the main structure of Building 4 was in a safe state.

  According to the above announcement, it is suggested to repair the holes in the concrete columns on the first floor immediately, and it is indicated that the Chongqing Design Institute, the original design unit of Building 4, has been entrusted to design the reinforcement scheme, and the drawing review organization has been invited to examine and approve the reinforcement drawings. At the same time, Fuli Center entrusted Sichuan Caiyuan Building Reinforcement Engineering Co., Ltd., which has the professional contracting qualification of special engineering (structural reinforcement), to prepare the concrete beams and columns on the first floor to be restored to their original state.

  However, the community owners do not agree with the announcement. Ms. Yang told the reporter that because the owner did not trust the appraisal entrusted by her, she wanted to apply for the appraisal of the provincial appraisal institute. At present, 51 owners have jointly signed a request for appraisal, but the construction party has been reluctant to sign. At present, the Jialing District Comprehensive Administrative Law Enforcement Bureau said that it would handle the case on November 7.

  "If you break a bone, you can’t stand up." Xue Minghui, deputy dean of the School of Architecture of Harbin Institute of Technology, said that the load-bearing walls and columns are the skeleton of the building. After being damaged, it will cause hidden dangers to the building, and the building will be directly damaged. Its importance is self-evident. It must be made clear that the private demolition of the load-bearing walls is not a moral issue, but a legal issue.

  According to Article 15 of Chapter II of the Regulations on Quality Management of Construction Projects: "The construction unit shall entrust the original design unit or a design unit with corresponding qualification grade to put forward the design scheme before the construction of the decoration project involving the change of the main building body and load-bearing structure. Without the design scheme, the construction shall not be carried out. During the renovation process, building users are not allowed to change the main body and load-bearing structure of the building without authorization. "

  In addition, the first paragraph of Article 5 in Chapter II of the Administrative Measures for Interior Decoration of Residential Buildings stipulates: "The following acts are prohibited in the interior decoration of residential buildings: changing the main body and load-bearing structure of the building without the original design unit or a design unit with corresponding qualification grade."

  "Unauthorized transformation may constitute infringement and bear civil liability for compensation. Because the bearing wall is dismantled privately, the whole building is in a dangerous state, which endangers public safety and is suspected of bearing criminal responsibility, which constitutes a crime of endangering public safety by dangerous means. " Lawyer Li Baolian of Beijing Jingshi Law Firm said.

  On October 22, Ms. Yang told reporters that the construction party had stopped work on August 29 due to the opposition of the owners. On September 1st, Jialing District Comprehensive Administrative Law Enforcement Bureau delivered a rectification notice to Fuli Center.

  Why is there a constant controversy over privately demolishing the load-bearing wall?

  Not only Ms. Yang, but also Mr. Chen from xinluo district, Longyan City, Fujian Province, is facing the problem of "privately demolishing the bearing wall" in the same building.

  On October 20, Mr. Chen told the reporter of Yangguang. com that the owner of the 25th floor of the residential area owned two houses on this floor. In order to connect the two houses into one, during the renovation, the owner removed the four load-bearing walls between the living room of one house and the kitchen of another house. "The load-bearing walls that have been demolished here are basically determined. As the householder refused to let in, whether the load-bearing wall at the passage between the two units was damaged has not yet been determined. "

  Demolished wall (photo courtesy of interviewee from Yangguang. com)

  Xue Minghui, after checking the construction drawings provided by Mr. Chen, said that the four demolished places are wall battlements, which are not a big problem at ordinary times, but may be dangerous under special circumstances. Shear walls, also known as wind-resistant walls and earthquake-resistant walls, are located in the passage between the two houses, which have the function of resisting typhoons. Destroying the shear walls will affect the bearing capacity of the building and cannot be removed at will.

  Floor plan of the owner’s two houses on the 25th floor (Photo courtesy of the interviewee sent by Yangguang. com)

  "Why did the original design unit or the design unit with the corresponding qualification grade not issue a professional design plan, and the property was allowed to start construction?" Many owners asked about the residential property in the WeChat group.

  In response to the owner’s query, the property said in the owner group of Building No.10 that the behavior had been discovered during the inspection, and issued a rectification notice on August 30 and informed the Urban Management Bureau, and said that the Longmen Law Enforcement Brigade of the Urban Management Bureau had been to the site for disposal.

  During this period, many residents in Building 10 complained through "e Longyan". On September 13, Longyan City Administration Bureau began to reply to the complaints one after another: "The Longmen Law Enforcement Brigade of Longyan City Administration Bureau intervened in the investigation on September 6 before receiving the complaints. Our team’s law enforcement officers asked the owner to rectify and restore the demolished wall, and the owner began rectification on September 10. "

  However, the owners are not satisfied with the reply. "Let the business owners recover on their own, and can they meet the requirements of bearing capacity after recovery? Why not publish a professional appraisal and repair plan? " Mr. Chen said.

  In the interview, the reporter found that whether the appraisal is authoritative and the later professional rectification plan is issued, and whether reasonable compensation is implemented is the focus of controversy.

  Lawyer Wang Xinyue of Beijing Haotian Law Firm said that the reason for the dispute is that even if the owner receives the rectification notice or administrative punishment decision from the law enforcement unit, there may still be problems in actual performance. For example, the owner is not sure whether the rectification and repair plan is standardized or whether the rectification and repair plan meets the bearing capacity requirements.

  She believes that law enforcement units should actively perform their duties, eliminate the harmful consequences and continue to follow up after issuing the Notice of Order (Time Limit) Correction, and combine various means such as investigation, fine and transfer to the public security department. If necessary, a third-party rectification plan can be introduced, and the rectification costs will be borne by the violator. At the same time, strengthen the intensity of administrative law enforcement and improve the quality of administrative law enforcement.

  Why are private demolition of load-bearing walls repeatedly prohibited?

  Since the beginning of this year, many "privately demolished load-bearing walls" incidents have been on the hot search.

  At the end of April, in a 31-storey residential building in Limin Academy Community, Songbei District, Harbin, tenants smashed the load-bearing wall privately during renovation, resulting in cracks in the whole building. In the evening, more than 200 households were evacuated. According to CCTV news, on May 9, the public security organs took criminal compulsory measures against four responsible persons according to law.

  Just in the past month, at the end of May, some people reported that on the second floor of an apartment building in Yuegong Mansion, Wuyue Square, Sihui City, Guangdong Province, Yao, the owner of 42 apartments on the whole floor, demolished the partition wall without obtaining a construction permit, and illegally constructed about 700 square meters. On June 6th, the official WeChat of the Propaganda Department of Sihui Municipal Committee, WeChat official account, released a description of the "Sihui Release", ordering it to stop construction immediately and make corrections within a time limit.

  Xue Minghui said that load-bearing walls generally refer to walls used to bear vertical loads in brick-concrete structures. At present, new buildings are rare, mainly some multi-storey houses built in the last century. Multi-storey public buildings are generally frame structures, which are supported by columns. High-rise residential buildings are generally shear walls, which are supported by vertical and horizontal loads. Some people understand shear walls as load-bearing walls.

  Why is it that private demolition of load-bearing walls is repeatedly prohibited? He believes that from a dialectical point of view, first, the functions of existing buildings can not meet the needs of social development, and the space can not meet the requirements of new commerce and residence, which needs to be expanded, but it is limited by the wall. Second, due to the lack of popular science in architecture, many people don’t know which walls can be moved, which can never be moved, and which can be partially changed, such as opening doors and windows, which helps those who don’t know the building structure to avoid falling into the predicament of huge compensation and disputes. Third, the inadequate supervision of the property and related departments on the decoration process is also one of the reasons for this phenomenon.

  "Once there is a problem with the load-bearing wall, the property will also bear the responsibility, which is a dereliction of duty." A property manager said that before the renovation, the decoration masters all had house design drawings, and they knew which were load-bearing walls. "If it is not intentionally demolished, the decoration master will not move the load-bearing wall."

  In Xue Minghui’s view, it is necessary to raise residents’ awareness of the rule of law for such problems. "Let everyone know that this is not a moral issue, but a legal issue."

  How should the load-bearing wall "bear the load"?

  "Not all load-bearing walls can be dismantled." In Xue Minghui’s view, many buildings can be demolished by structural reinforcement, but this requires special institutions to identify, design and construct. In addition, because a certain safety factor is reserved in the structural design of buildings, sometimes accidents will not occur when some load-bearing walls are removed. For example, the load-bearing wall on the top floor of the building does not have much load on it, and even if it is removed, the problem is not great.

  He said that it is unclear that the most unfavorable conditions, such as earthquake resistance, too many people in the room and uneven load, will be taken into account when designing the building structure. However, this has also caused many people a misunderstanding that some load-bearing walls can be removed, or at least some parts can be removed.

  In order to curb the illegal acts of interior decoration, on June 9 this year, the Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development issued the Notice on Further Strengthening the Safety Management of Interior Decoration of Urban Houses (hereinafter referred to as the Notice), which further clarified the responsibilities of all parties and relevant departments involved in the decoration activities, including design units, decoration enterprises, property service enterprises and local governments.

  The Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development issued the Notice on Further Strengthening the Safety Management of Interior Decoration of Urban Houses.

  After the promulgation of the Notice, some cities have taken action. For example, the comprehensive administrative law enforcement team of Luodian Town, Baoshan District, Shanghai has set up a special working group to lead the new owners to identify the load-bearing structure of the house on the spot in each newly delivered community, and to answer questions on the spot by explaining the case and explaining it in a simple way, so as to turn "compulsory afterwards" into "prevention and control beforehand".

  "This is not a joke, we can’t afford this responsibility." A property manager said that no matter from which point of view, this is harmful to others. If there is a crack in the internal structure of the wall, the residents of the whole building are in danger.

  The above-mentioned managers said that before the renovation, they would tell the owners never to move the load-bearing wall. During the renovation, the property personnel should also check it out. If there are renovation tenants who can’t open the door due to frequent construction, they should pay attention. If the owner is found to have dismantled the load-bearing wall privately and refuses to stop it, he will be told to stop the decoration immediately and force the water and electricity to be cut off. In addition, the property will also inform the doorpost and refuse the decoration master to enter the community. After the load-bearing wall is restored, the construction can continue.

  Li Baolian said that property service enterprises should give full play to the role of "whistleblower" and "night watchman", encrypt the frequency of inspections in their daily work, dissuade and stop violations immediately when they are found, and promptly report to relevant departments for legal determination and handling. Government supervision departments should strengthen the supervision of decoration enterprises, and strictly investigate unqualified, borrowed or exceeded qualifications to undertake decoration projects.

  She said that once it is found that someone has dismantled the load-bearing wall privately, the owner can bring a lawsuit to the people’s court where the house is located according to the Civil Code, requesting the actor to stop the infringement, remove the obstruction, eliminate the danger, restore the original state and compensate for the losses.

New issue of Reading | Wang Yifang: Welfare of Disease

Original Wang Yifang reading magazine

editorial comment/note

Diseases, especially malignant diseases, are hard to avoid in everyone’s life. The author advocates that when this happens, we should still be optimistic, and at this moment, the society should be equipped with a channel of "hospice care" to effectively improve the quality of life of patients. This is an appeal for "hospice care", which is a relatively missing part of our national medical system and deserves attention from all sides.

Welfare of disease

Wen | Wang Yifang

(The third issue of Reading in 2024)

When talking about the welfare of diseases, people will naturally bypass the disease itself and point to the miracle of modern medical care or the increasingly perfect insurance system. In fact, without disease and suffering, medical benefits will not be born automatically, and the love and care parallel to medical benefits will be eclipsed. This is clearly a kind of "paper clip effect" welfare. The initial port can be traced back to the independent reflection and collective response of diseases. If we glance into the deep well of philosophy, it is a reflection and awe of patients’ subjectivity.

Hospice Care (Source: stchristophers.org.uk)

It was an American community doctor who first made me understand this bitter philosophy. More than 20 years ago, I visited the United States. On the way, I suffered from a bad cold, fever, cough and sore throat, and I was sore all over. So, I hurried to choose a doctor for treatment. The general practitioner, who was nearly half a century old, enthusiastically accepted me. After some consultation, he didn’t prescribe medicine for me. His belief was that the common cold didn’t need to take medicine, and he humorously told me that "take medicine for seven days, don’t take medicine for a week", just take a full rest and strengthen nursing. He explained the reasons in detail. The common cold symptoms are serious but not dangerous, and it is a self-healing disease, except It also urged the patient to review his lifestyle. More interestingly, he also talked to me about "Aesthetics of cold". Although the course of a cold is not long, the patient’s identity has shaped the image of the sick and weak who are cared for, cared for and loved, won an opportunity to feel sorry for themselves (be kind to themselves), and allowed relatives and friends to fully express their love (care for others). Sure enough, during my week of illness, I was cared for by my colleagues and friends, and my heart was full of love. This also reminds me of the deep association of disease welfare. It seems that the word "welfare" can be divided and analyzed. Happiness is a blessing and a benefit. However, in the concept of China people, happiness and misfortune are interdependent, with mutual interests and full of dialectics.

Perhaps it is too common to talk about a cold, and it is not easy to attract people’s attention. If you change a cold into a tumor and change it into a malignant cancer, will you feel the same? Obviously, the mood will be heavier and more shattered. If readers inadvertently type "aizheng" on the keyboard, there will be "being punished" on the computer screen at the same time as "cancer", which means that cancer equals being punished. In susan sontag’s Metaphor of Disease, cancer is labeled as a modern devil, ranking first in the disease spectrum and death spectrum. Nearly ten million people die of malignant tumors every year in the world. For such a number one malignant disease, people avoid it, sigh, and talk about welfare. Isn’t it deliberate to find a flat? Actually, there are two sides to everything, and so are tumors. First of all, tumor is just a "different fruit" that grows after the loopholes in human immune system appear, just like the "crooked melon and cracked jujube" in nature, which is closely related to the aging process of human beings. However, a few days ago, an academic report by Academician Cheng Shujun made me feel refreshed. The report cited a group of elderly people who were over 80 years old. They were complacent and enjoyed their life, but in the autopsy, they found that 60% of the deceased had "prostate cancer", which they didn’t know before their death. This is the so-called "lazy cancer" phenomenon. Its natural growth cycle is long, even exceeding the natural life span, but it only proliferates slowly without making a mess. Therefore, a familiar oncologist often teases patients with slow progress of prostate cancer: "Congratulations, you have snail cancer." As for cancer, Academician Fan Daiming, who is the chairman of China Anti-Cancer Association, has some strange ideas. In his eyes,Cancer cells are the "revolutionary party" in the body. In the process of aging, weakness, atrophy, degradation, and even exhaustion and decline, cancer cells are changing locally, inspiring a new atmosphere of proliferation, expansion, prosperity and transfer. This is clearly a retrograde force of "rejuvenation". The problem lies in their "crazy" growth and breaking the internal ecology, which leads to physical harm.

Susan sontag and Henri Cartier-Bresson were filmed in 1972 (Source: Beijing News)

Metaphor of Disease, by susan sontag, translated by Cheng Wei, Shanghai Translation Publishing House, 2020 (Source: dangdang.com).

Unfortunately, the balance technology of connivance-controlling the growth of cancer cells has not yet come out, and more patients are tortured by crazy and barbaric growth of cancer cells and die young. This is the harsh cancer world. If so, it is obviously inappropriate for me to explore the welfare of diseases under the cruel aesthetic situation. But it’s not that no one dares to think and say. Susan sontag, who has suffered from cancer twice, is such a brave man who dares to face up to the suffering of cancer. She tells the world that it is the existence of cancer that reveals people’s "dual nationality", that is, they are citizens of the health kingdom and the disease kingdom, rather than absolutely healthy people or patients. Everyone is so-called "healthy with illness". Even if they do not suffer from such a malignant disease as cancer, they may be patients with one disease or another but not diagnosed, or linger in "disease" Don’t fantasize that after a serious illness, you should rely on high consumption and high technology mastered by a famous doctor to save yourself from danger, but you should always maintain a good lifestyle, avoid all kinds of risk factors, intervene in time when you are sick at the end of the disease, and refuse the evil disease from the "Xiao Qiang".

However, with the development of modern medicine, it seems that human beings have no magic to resist all sufferings, including cancer that makes the body and mind tremble. The dice of suffering in God’s hands will eventually be thrown out. The arrival of evil diseases is the fate of life, and someone needs to bear it. With the advent of the age of longevity, the probability of suffering from cancer and other malignant diseases is still rising, even young people are not spared, and they need to be psychologically prepared to meet the malignant diseases. The talented boy who died young wrote proudly, especially in dealing with cancer: "God is going to send a golden tumor to a person, and to whom?" He is afraid that timid people can’t support it, and he is afraid that strong people will bear it flatly, so he will give it to an optimistic person, and those who are optimistic and have no aftertaste will just give it to me. I am beyond everything! " In the face of human suffering, we really need a superman who chews pain like this and then transcends it. Nevertheless, modern medicine should also design a spiritual soothing journey of "arrival of love" and "redemption of suffering" for cancer and other malignant diseases besides coming back to life, so that they can "step on thorns, feel no pain, have tears to shed, and are not sad" (Bing Xin: Send a Letter to a Little Reader), which can be regarded as an ultimate pursuit for cancer patients in pain. It is a set of "holistic pain" for cancer patients, highlighting the value of care and creating a dignified and quality survival and life plan. This scheme, once known as palliative care, began in 1967, marked by the British nurse Sanders.Dame Cicely Saunders established a hospice ward in St Christopher’s Hospital in south London, which started the modern hospice movement. Julia M. Addington-Hall, Saunders’ successor and the current director of the hospice care unit of St. Christopher’s Hospital, co-authored with Irene Higginson, and Li Xiaomei, Zhu Ping, Li Fan and Liu Duanluan led 46 elite colleagues in the hospice care industry in China to jointly translate (to adapt to the multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary characteristics of the book) the book palliative care for non-cancer patients. It describes the difficult course of hospice care concept and action advocated by Saunders from initial germination to worldwide popularity, and also describes the difficult butterfly change of hospice palliative care from exclusive service for cancer patients to universal benefit for all chronic patients (such as heart, lung, liver and kidney failure, severe blood diseases, gradual freezing and other neurodegenerative diseases, AIDS, serious and rare diseases of children and adolescents). After reading this book, people will deeply feel that the opening, construction and perfection of modern hospice and palliative medical system are the greatest medical benefits born of cancer and chronic diseases.

British nurse Saunders who established the hospice ward (Source: stchristophers.org.uk)

Palliative care for non-cancer patients, by Julia and Irene, translated by Li Xiaomei and Zhu Ping, Science Press, 2023 (Source: dangdang.com).

In the initial hospice ward, there were mainly patients with advanced cancer, who suffered from physical and mental pain, shivering in the eyes of death and crying to the sky. The focus of palliative care is no longer to exterminate cancer cells, but to dispel physical and mental pain, gain insight into the end-of-life counseling of death, and improve the dignity and quality of life. People often say that the highest state of life is "come crying (be born) and go laughing (die)", but it is not easy to really be on the cliff of life and death without shaking your feet. In the late stage of cancer, it is a narrow road to meet death. just visiting, who heard the footsteps of death approaching, must pierce the window paper as soon as possible, so that patients and their relatives can accept the unexpected encounter of death. Montaigne, a French writer who was tortured to death by lithiasis, once said heroically: It is better to stop and invite death to drink a cup of bitter wine than to be chased by death.

Ten years ago, the authoritative website of British Medical Journal published a wonderful article entitled "Death from cancer is the best death". The author is Richard Smith, the former editor-in-chief of the journal. Compared with the mentality of ordinary people talking about cancer discoloration (in essence, talking about death discoloration), his views are shocking. Because compared with sudden death without saying goodbye, cancer death may be more elegant, and it is a death benefit exclusively for cancer patients. From diagnosis to death, there is at least three months, and most people have a buffer period of more than one year. It is a prepared death, and there is enough time to arrange their last time, wave goodbye to my relatives, say goodbye in heaven and reflect on life. Leave your last words to your family and friends, and maybe you will have time to go to your favorite place, read some favorite poems, listen to your favorite music, and make all the preparations for the last moment. In Smith’s view, romantic death is love, morphine (powerful analgesic) and good wine, instead of forcing ambitious oncologists to waste a lot of money trying to cure cancer, which will make cancer death worse. The most terrible death is the kind of life that depends on modern medical technology, the kind of endless lingering. In the name of Hippocrates, doctors created one of the most exquisite and elegant tortures for human beings: the delay of slow illness and slow death.

Richard smith, former editor-in-chief of British Medical Journal.

Hospice palliative care, also known as hospice care, is a shift of attention, concern, care and clinical work focus between doctors and relatives, from coping with diseases to coping with pain, including symptomatic solutions to physical pain: pain relief, cough relief, antiemesis, itching relief, spasmolysis and asthma relief, nursing of fever, swelling reduction, skin bedsore and oral ulcer, improvement of weak nutrition, and community situation and emergency situation. The list of work is detailed in the book, which is not only of guiding value to occupational medical care, but also of guiding significance to the family members (that is, non-professional caregivers) who are taking care of at home. It also introduces the life care of the whole person’s pain and the spiritual comfort method of parting. At this time, although life cannot be healed, life can be respected, inquired and cared for, giving new meaning to life. The transfer of hospice care purpose brings about the change and adjustment of ideas. The object of intervention is not just a simple body, but a whole person; Intervention means are not just medicine, injections and surgery, but stories and narratives, music and drama, life review and reconstruction of life meaning. Clinical thinking is no longer confined to the intervention of biotechnology, but extends to life care, individual dignity and quality of life. What is worth cherishing is the discussion of ethical topics in hospice care, especially the problem of fairness and justice in the allocation of medical resources, and the detailed discussion of social, cultural and psychological projection of various symptoms in hospice care and cross-cultural care, which not only broadens the field of vision, but also closely follows the practice, and the content is not empty or informal.

Undoubtedly, cancer is only one of many chronic diseases. Human beings have entered the era of chronic diseases because of their super longevity. Its basic feature is that medicine and medical treatment are experiencing unprecedented incompetence, powerlessness, ineffectiveness and helplessness. First of all, more and more chronic diseases are treated, and the war model of diagnosis and treatment fails. The pathogenic factors (enemies) are not limited to external bacteria and viruses, but more are internal life stalls, immune out of control, dysfunction, psychological disorder, loss of value, weightlessness of soul, and life out of focus-frustration. It is necessary to get out of the trenches and put down fighting thinking; Secondly, the course of chronic diseases is getting longer and longer, and the alternative model of diagnosis and treatment (technical survival) encounters the dilemma of high cost, low quality of life, maintenance of physical function and mental decline; Third, the disease is becoming more and more difficult, and the medical performance is declining (ineffective medical treatment is obvious): quick cure and quick recovery to slow cure and slow recovery, and then to no cure and no recovery, from quick death (sudden death) to slow death (relying on a complicated life support system to survive), and then to neither death nor life (unconscious, dignified and quality-free survival); Fourthly, the body-mind-society-spirit representation of the disease is becoming more and more stereoscopic, and the role of the doctor is changing silently, from the rescuer to the companion, comforter and witness, bidding farewell to the obsession of never giving up, moving towards the acceptance and openness of death, ending the dependence and moving towards a good death (a good death); Fifth, psychological, social and spiritual weights are getting heavier and heavier, and medical intervention is turning, from drugs and scalpels to language, picture books (life and death narration) and music (looking back at youth and looking forward to heaven) to realize psychological comfort (consciousness) and spiritual comfort (liberation); Sixth,The purpose of medicine is changing quietly, from safety and well-being to tranquility, serenity and settlement, concluding the legacy of love, turning cold death into warm love arrival, and realizing both life and death in farewell, love, apology, thanks and love.

Hospice care at St. Christopher’s Hospital (Source: stchristophers.org.uk)

Hospice care at St. Christopher’s Hospital (Source: stchristophers.org.uk)

Regarding the evolution of the concept of hospice care in the era of chronic diseases, there are some basic principles worth spreading and letting the world know and agree. First of all, the irreversible process of life failure and death can only be alleviated by any medical intervention, but it can’t be cured. There is a huge gap between it and the reversible disease, the psychological expectation that it can regain vitality and reach rehabilitation through intervention. The pathological features of aging and the end of life are the degeneration of organs, tissues and cells, rather than alienation and disproportionation, which are mainly manifested in functional degeneration, behavioral withdrawal and intellectual degeneration, leading to disorder, disability, amnesia, loss of emotion and will, loss of personality and dignity. Modern medicine prides itself on the failure of the war model of etiology control and the substitute model of functional improvement, and the palliative, tranquil and palliative medical model appears. Secondly, there is a huge gap between physical pain and the core of human pain. Pain is not pain, and pain relief is not soothing. The primary intervention of hospice care is full analgesia (symptomatic treatment). Its advanced intervention is caring: attention, concern, concern and empathy, which is the psychological decompression of the concentration of talking and listening. You say it, I am listening carefully, and I have had this pain experience … Advocating a dialogue between doctors and patients on pain experience. Thirdly, healing is not dignity, and the primary goal of hospice care is to pursue etiological improvement, while the advanced goal is to safeguard the life dignity of patients and help patients and their families rediscover the meaning of life. Fourthly, in the end-stage palliative care, the dual-track paradigm of technology and humanities and the simple paradigm of technical intervention are judged. Here, treatment is no longer killing and repairing.It is caring and caring, and its primary vision is to focus on disinfection and repair. Etiology, pathogenesis and symptomatic treatment can eliminate the cause and restore disability, but they cannot cope with dementia, frustration, disqualification and disrespect. The advanced vision of treatment is to focus on the improvement of the whole person’s situation and quality of life, and to implement the whole person’s care and care. Fifth, there are many cognitive biases in the end-stage physical and mental intervention. Psychological intervention is not spiritual comfort, the former is the relief of psychological symptoms and the dilution of negative psychological motivation, and the latter is spiritual comfort and the ultimate care. Sixth, there are also cognitive misunderstandings in the process and meaning of death. Physical death is not the whole person’s death (which can’t cover sociological death), and mortuary is not the end of life journey. The early task of death counseling is to face the warning and interpretation of death crisis, and the later task is to recognize the meaning of death, maintain tension between refusing death and accepting death, controlling death and excessive intervention, and help patients and their families to be open-minded about life and death and conclude a legacy of love. Finally, communication between doctors and patients in palliative care is not doctor-patient communication. Communication training only increases the affinity of communication between doctors and patients and nurses through language improvement, while communication training expands the depth and abundance of communication between doctors and patients and nurses through empathy training, integrates into patients’ life and life experience, and improves the quality of life.

In the hospice care unit, doctors and nurses have to deal with all kinds of complicated difficulties at the end of their lives. Traditional medicines, needles and scalpels are of course important, but they also need the devotion of humanity and the nourishment of humanity, including companionship, witness, comfort and settlement. Among them, companionship and witness are the advanced circumstances of care. Doctors and nurses are not only present, but also their personality charm brings hope and human light to patients and experiences "being with angels" (tasting divinity). Medical care witnesses the existence of a weak life and the suffering of a vicious disease. "I know that you are suffering, I can touch and feel your suffering, and I can pay attention to and understand how difficult it is for you now." It is not difficult to imagine that patients and elders are often trapped in emotional loneliness, language loneliness and meaning loneliness because of the sharp contraction of social relations, and feel that they will become "lonely souls and wild ghosts", and they will live without belief support. At this time, they need more determined eyes, loving language and body language to secretly deliver life energy (empowerment). Comfort in palliative care is often a miraculous force, just like the spring breeze blowing the body and mind, which is carried out at four levels: first, physical comfort, such as hugging and touching the forehead, managing the living situation, trimming the margins (haircut, shaving, bathing, changing underwear), recovering life confidence and identity and dignity; The second is language comfort: intimate words, private words, life course review and dignity therapy; Third, psychological comfort, dissolve the psychological knot, and call back distant family ties; Fourth, spiritual comfort, life education, suffering, death counseling, dignity and belief therapy, and reconciliation with nature and the world after death. Undoubtedly,Care at the end of life is a systematic project that constantly updates its connotation, and needs multiple coordination and support. First, it is the four-all cognition of peaceful care, that is, to establish the thinking of caring for the whole family, community, general practitioner, team and whole process; Secondly, it is the support of blood and affection to overcome the companionship fatigue of "no dutiful son before a long hospital bed"; Third, the social and emotional support beyond consanguinity (empathy and empathy), to maximize the mobilization of social workers and volunteers to participate in hospice care; Fourth, the professional value support of hospice care team, such as constructing continuous professional behavior driven by virtue and bioethics, overcoming empathic exhaustion and job burnout; Fifth, caring financial support, overcoming the utilitarian thinking of curative effect. At present, patients and their families generally have the psychology of giving up without hope of healing, unwilling to spend money to improve their dignity and quality of life, and long-term care consumes limited health insurance and medical resources, which is difficult to guarantee continuously; Sixth, social care financing: internationally, there is a dichotomy, that is, medical insurance and long-term care insurance are operated separately, and the resources for etiological treatment are gradually transferred to caring resources for hospice care.

Hospice care in China (source: baidu. com)

Hospice care in China (source: baidu. com)

In all fairness, China’s hospice care is still in a difficult climbing stage, with technical and resource bottlenecks easily broken and concept and system bottlenecks hard to get rid of. Nowadays, not only patients with terminal cancer have not fully entered the hospice palliative medical channel, but also dare not expect non-cancer patients to enjoy the welfare of hospice care. However, the frame and road map of hospice and palliative care carefully described by Julia and Irene are very detailed, and the road signs and objectives are very clear, which undoubtedly adds confidence and strength to our future journey of hospice and palliative care. I think that as long as the whole society really pays attention to death as the "terminal welfare" of life, there will be showers of wealth and wisdom coming simultaneously, which will moisten the hospice and ease the medical cause and make it a towering tree.

Let’s hope that this day will come soon.

(palliative care for non-cancer patients, by Julia and Irene, translated by Li Xiaomei and Zhu Ping, presided by Li Fan and Liu Duanmao, Science Press, 2023).

 

Original title: The New Issue of Reading | Wang Yifang: Welfare of Diseases

Read the original text

People who swim for a long time will have these four major changes in their bodies. How many do you know?

Swimming has become a standard sport in summer, and lying in a cold pool in summer is a great pleasure in summer! In addition to the comfort of cooling, swimming has several unknown benefits. Let’s take you to know about the benefits of swimming and related taboos today ~

Four benefits of swimming:

Step 1 lose weight

Swimming is one of the most effective ways to lose weight. Experts’ experiments show that the heat consumed by staying at 12 degrees Celsius for 4 minutes can only be consumed in 1 hour on land at the same temperature. The reason for such a big difference is that the density and heat transfer of water are greater than that of air, so regular exercise in water can gradually consume more fat and shape a more perfect posture.

2. It is beneficial to the recovery of chronic respiratory diseases.

Swimming can exercise the respiratory muscles such as pectoral muscle, diaphragm muscle and intercostal muscle, thus improving the ventilation function of the lungs and improving the efficiency of breathing. Proper swimming exercise is beneficial to the rehabilitation of patients with chronic respiratory diseases.

Step 3 strengthen your heart

As a horizontal exercise, swimming can not only make all parts of the body bear the same gravity, but also balance blood circulation and strengthen the heart.

Step 4 soothe joints

Different types of swimming movements can exercise the joints of the body. In addition, because the water has buoyancy when swimming, the legs are free from supporting the weight, and the main joints of the thighs can be relaxed and relieved.

Although swimming is good,But there are still a few points to pay attention to..

1. It is not advisable to swim for a long time.

The swimming duration should not exceed 1.5-2 hours. Because people stay in the water for a period of time, the blood flow on the body surface expands, and the skin turns from cold to warm. However, once they stay in the water for too long, the skin will gradually appear goose bumps and chills, which will have a certain impact on health.

2. It is not advisable to eat immediately after swimming.

Because swimming consumes a lot of fat and calories, there will be some hunger after swimming. However, eating immediately after swimming will increase the burden on the stomach and intestines, which will easily lead to gastrointestinal diseases for a long time. Therefore, you should rest for 1 hour before eating.

3. Patients with otitis media, dermatosis and acute conjunctivitis should avoid swimming.

There are a lot of bacteria in the swimming pool. If people with the above diseases swim again, it will not only make the original condition worse, but even spread the disease bacteria in the swimming pool, causing infection to others.

4. Pay attention to cleaning after swimming.

After swimming, you should take a bath or dry your body with a towel immediately, then drop Chlorella or boric acid eye drops on your glasses and clean up nasal secretions. If there is water in the ear, you should use "jumping on the same side" to discharge the water, so as to avoid the eardrum injury caused by hand digging.