New Energy Automobile Industry Development Plan (2021— In 2035), it is proposed that the core technology of China’s new energy vehicles should reach the international advanced level in 2035, and the quality brands have strong international competitiveness, and it is pointed out that it is necessary to improve the infrastructure system and improve the service level of charging infrastructure — —
Reporter Li He
New energy vehicles have become the main direction of the global automobile industry transformation and development, and also an important engine to promote the sustained growth of the world economy. For China, developing new energy vehicles is the only way to move from a big automobile country to a strong automobile country, and it is also a strategic measure to cope with climate change and promote green development. Since 2010, China’s new energy vehicles have grown rapidly at an average annual rate of double. In 2019, 1.06 million new energy passenger cars were sold, ranking first in the world for five consecutive years. With the development plan of energy-saving and new energy automobile industry (2012— After the end of 2020), how should China’s new energy automobile industry develop?
On November 2nd, General Office of the State Council announced the Development Plan of New Energy Automobile Industry (2021— 2035) (hereinafter referred to as "Planning") emphasizes the need to seize strategic opportunities, give full play to the advantages in infrastructure, information and communication, continuously enhance the core competitiveness of the industry, and promote the high-quality and sustainable development of the new energy automobile industry.
With strong competitiveness, the core technology has reached the international advanced level.
The Plan is divided into eight chapters, including five key tasks, five column tasks and five "three 5s" of safeguard measures. Xin Guobin, vice minister of the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, said that as a programmatic document of the new energy automobile industry, the main highlights of the Plan can be summarized as "four new ones", namely, adapting to the new situation, adapting to new requirements, proposing new development paths and defining new development directions.
The new situation means that with the vigorous development of the new round of scientific and technological revolution and industrial transformation in the world, new energy vehicles integrate new energy, new materials, Internet, big data, artificial intelligence and other revolutionary technologies to promote the transformation of vehicles from simple means of transportation to mobile intelligent terminals, energy storage units and digital spaces, and promote the optimization of energy consumption structure, the improvement of transportation system and the intelligent level of urban operation; Emphasizing "market leading" requires giving full play to the decisive role of the market in resource allocation, strengthening the dominant position of enterprises in the selection of technical routes and the construction of production and service systems, giving full play to the role of the government in strategic planning and guidance, formulation of standards and regulations, quality and safety supervision, maintenance of market order, and green consumer guide, so as to create a good environment for industrial development.
The Plan proposes that by 2025, the competitiveness of China’s new energy vehicle market will be significantly enhanced, and the sales volume of new energy vehicles will reach about 20% of the total sales volume of new vehicles, and the long-term goal of "in 2035, the core technology of China’s new energy vehicles will reach the international advanced level, and the quality brands will have strong international competitiveness".
Xin Guobin said that at present, there is still a certain gap between new energy vehicles and traditional fuel vehicles in terms of purchase cost and charging convenience. To promote the goal that the sales volume of new energy vehicles will reach about 20% of the total sales volume of new vehicles in 2025, it needs to be promoted from both the supply and demand sides. On the supply side, it is necessary to continuously strengthen technical research around key factors such as reducing costs and improving safety, develop advanced, applicable and reliable products, and accelerate the formation of greater market competitive advantages; On the demand side, it is necessary to strengthen policy guidance, introduce preferential policies to encourage the use of new energy vehicles, optimize classified traffic management measures, encourage business model innovation such as power exchange, accelerate the electrification of vehicles in public areas, increase the promotion of new energy vehicles to the countryside, and continuously improve the user experience.
Cui Dongshu, deputy secretary-general of the National Passenger Car Association, said that in terms of power consumption, the Plan proposed that by 2025, the average power consumption of new electric passenger cars would be reduced to 12 kWh/100 km. This is 1 degree higher than the 11 kWh/100 km of its exposure draft. In essence, it is to encourage the development of high-end new energy and should give it more room for development.
Driven by innovation, deepen the "three verticals and three horizontals" R&D layout
Xin Guobin said that China’s new energy automobile industry has developed to this stage, and there are still problems such as weak core technology innovation ability, quality assurance system to be improved, lagging infrastructure construction, service model to be innovated and improved, imperfect industrial ecology, and increasing market competition.
Telly, director of the High-tech Department of the Ministry of Science and Technology, said that from the whole development experience of new energy vehicles, the supporting and leading role of scientific and technological innovation in its development is very obvious.
In order to promote the realization of the goal, the Plan puts forward the basic principle of "innovation drive" and the special chapter of "improving the ability of technological innovation", and also emphasizes deepening the layout of "three verticals and three horizontals". "Three verticals" refer to pure electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and fuel cell vehicles, and "three verticals" refer to power batteries and management systems, drive motors and power electronics, networking and intelligent technologies.
"For the power battery, the core component of new energy vehicles, it will be deployed in advance in terms of new systems, new materials, new processes and new structures, and promote the development of power batteries in the direction of high specific energy and high safety; For fuel cells, we will focus on supporting core materials such as proton exchange membranes, catalysts and carbon paper, as well as key technologies related to hydrogen energy, and work hard on high performance, long life and low cost of fuel cells. " Telly said that around intelligence, networking and lightweight, we will speed up the layout of a new generation of information technology and focus on promoting the development of autonomous driving technologies and equipment such as vehicle control operating systems and computing platforms and vehicle-level chips; Strengthen the technical layout of new materials and support the research and development of silicon carbide power devices, lightweight materials and low-cost rare earth permanent magnet materials. We will increase support for scientific and technological innovation platforms such as the National New Energy Vehicle Technology Innovation Center, build a national strategic scientific and technological force for the national new energy vehicle industry, and provide support for the research and development of common key technologies in the industry.
Xin Guobin said that in addition to strengthening innovation drive, it also pays attention to standard guidance, which will promote the formation of a technical standard system based on vehicle-road coordination and reflecting Chinese characteristics. Accelerate the deployment of 5G communication base stations, promote the transformation and upgrading of intelligent roads, and organize manned loading tests and large-scale application demonstrations.
Improve infrastructure and promote the construction of charging and replacing network
China has built the largest charging network in the world. As of September this year, 42,000 charging stations and 525 power stations have been built nationwide, with 1.42 million charging piles of various types, and the ratio of vehicles to piles is about 3.1: 1.
"Charging and replacing electricity infrastructure is a key link in the development of new energy vehicles and an important support for industrial promotion. On the whole, compared with the promotion and application scale of new energy vehicles, the construction and development of charging facilities still cannot meet the needs of consumers, and it is necessary to increase construction efforts and optimize structural layout. " Xin Guobin said.
The Plan proposes to "improve the infrastructure system", promote the construction of the charging and replacing network, scientifically arrange the charging and replacing infrastructure, and strengthen the overall coordination with urban and rural construction planning, power grid planning and property management, and urban parking. Relying on "internet plus" smart energy, we will improve the level of intelligence, promote the charging service mode in residential areas with intelligent and orderly slow charging as the mainstay and emergency fast charging as the supplement, accelerate the formation of expressways and urban and rural public charging networks with moderate advance, fast charging as the mainstay and slow charging as the supplement, encourage the application of power exchange mode, and improve charging convenience and product reliability.
According to the data provided by the Ministry of Finance, in order to support local governments to speed up the construction of charging infrastructure, from 2014, the central government will give incentives to local governments to carry out charging infrastructure construction. So far, the central government has issued a total of 4.5 billion yuan of incentive funds, forming a development pattern of coordinated promotion between the central and local governments.
"In the past, users had mileage anxiety, and driving new energy vehicles could not run far, so they could only run in the city. Now, some expressways have built networked charging and power exchange facilities. " Xin Guobin said that to solve the mileage anxiety, in addition to continuing to increase the construction of charging piles, it is also necessary to consider the problem of making full use of existing charging piles. The existing information management technology can be used to bring all charging piles into a management platform and share them as much as possible. With the continuous expansion of market capacity, the construction layout of charging piles will be more scientific and standardized.
The Plan also proposes to improve the service level of charging infrastructure. Guide enterprises to jointly establish a charging facility operation service platform to realize interconnection, information sharing and unified settlement. Strengthen the research and development of technologies such as safety monitoring and early warning of charging equipment and distribution system, improve the safety, consistency and reliability of charging facilities, and improve the level of service guarantee.