Overseas media widely forwarded "International Sharp Review: Russia" Looking East "and Seeing Three" Beautiful Scenes "

  CCTV News:On September 11th, International Sharp Review, the general radio and television station of China, broadcasted an article entitled "Russia’s" Looking East "and Seeing Three Great Scenery", which was reprinted or quoted by many overseas media.

  From September 11th to 13th, Georgia’s 1TV and Vietnam’s National TV Channel 1 quoted relevant contents or materials. Siberian News Network, Czech Today Information Network, Buchrest China Review facebook account of Tananana Radio Station in Romania, website of Industry News in Kazakhstan, website of Turkish Economic Watch, website of Daily Morning News in India, Iranian People’s Road News Network, facebook account of DZME Radio Station in Philippines, website of Nepal Urban FM Station, Facebook account of Myanmar opinion leader media, facebook account of French LCF Radio, German website of European Times, website of Radio Spain International, website and facebook account of Rainbow FM in Lisbon, Portugal, Iberian APP, website and facebook account of Brazil’s Rio headlines, website and facebook account of Brazil’s Sao Paulo World Broadcasting Station, Nigeria’s Leader website, Tanzania’s Africa Media Group website facebook account, Los Angeles Post website, Nordic Times website, Portuguese New Newspaper APP(facebook account, twitter account), Chinese headline APP, European Union Chinese website, China-Europe United Times website, West Africa online website, Africa Times website, Japanese Chinese business website, and Xizhong website. On September 12th, Hong Kong Ta Kung Pao and Hong Kong Business Daily also published and forwarded this article.主要报道内容如下:

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  第四届东方经济论坛9月11日至13日在俄罗斯远东城市符拉迪沃斯托克举行。中国国家主席习近平和多位东北亚国家元首或政府首脑,以及超过60个国家的代表团出席,规格之高、规模之大,均创下论坛历史之最。

  东方经济论坛是俄罗斯总统普京2015年亲自倡议举办的,是当时俄罗斯在与美欧关系迅速恶化背景下做出的多个“向东看”的决定之一。俄罗斯“向东看”的政策,曾一度被西方视为缓解制裁压力而做出的“暂时性的策略调整”,甚至有媒体质疑“向东看,俄罗斯就能看到自己的未来吗?”然而,随着近几年俄罗斯向东步伐的加快,“向东看”越来越呈现出俄罗斯长期国家战略的特征。

  向东看,俄罗斯看到中俄合作创造巨大红利。作为俄罗斯第一大贸易伙伴国,中国从2015年首届东方经济论坛开始,每年都派出大规模、高规格代表团出席。此次习近平主席出席论坛,是中国国家元首在东方经济论坛上的首次亮相,这充分展现出中方愿意参与东方合作的积极姿态。

  中俄双方在远东地区的合作,正在两国全面战略协作伙伴关系中扮演越来越重要的角色。中国目前是俄在远东地区的第一大贸易伙伴和第一大外资来源国,投资总额约40亿美元,已有26家中资企业入驻俄罗斯为远东发展专门设立的“超前发展区”和符拉迪沃斯托克自由港。同时,双方还在共同推进修建横跨中俄界河——黑龙江的铁路、公路大桥项目,以全面提升两国边境地区基础设施的互联互通水平。毫无疑问,深化中俄合作,是俄罗斯“向东看”的重要内容。

  向东看,俄罗斯看到东北亚区域合作的拓展空间。东方经济论坛已成功举办三届,在东北亚地区产生了积极影响,去年论坛期间共签订了总额为2.5万亿卢布的协议,今年这一数字有望突破3.5万亿。

  东北亚区域资源丰富、市场成熟、潜力巨大。出席本届东方经济论坛的东北亚国家领导人,除习近平主席外,还有蒙古国总统巴特图勒嘎、日本首相安倍晋三、韩国总理李洛渊等,这充分显示出区域内各国加强合作的意愿。当前,东北亚地区多个双边或多边合作框架正在逐步形成:中俄蒙经济走廊建设已初见成效,中日韩自由贸易协定谈判正在加速进行,韩朝有望正式开展经济合作。与此同时,域内各国对“一带一路”的积极态度也逐渐凝聚为共识。在这样的背景下,习近平主席与东北亚多国领导人共同出席东方经济论坛,有望促进区域合作进一步提升,进一步推动“一带一路”在东北亚地区走深走实。这对于俄罗斯振兴远东,也无疑是重大利好。

  向东看,俄罗斯看到亚太经济“快车”带来发展机遇。远东地区拥有极其丰富的自然资源,被誉为“世界上唯一未被深挖的宝库”。然而这个“宝库”由于经济增长缓慢、基础设施落后、人口流失严重等问题,至今未能体现出应有的战略意义和经济价值。基于东西部平衡发展的战略考量,俄罗斯近年来将远东开发提升到国家战略的高度。

  Behind this strategy is the rapid economic growth in Asia-Pacific region. As one of the most active and fastest growing regions in the global economy, the Asia-Pacific economic circle is a huge consumer market and a potential source of investment for Russia. Developing the Far East is not only an internal demand of local economic and social development, but also a way to let Russia catch the "express train" of rapid economic development in the Asia-Pacific region. According to Russian customs statistics, the proportion of trade between Russia and APEC member countries in Russia’s foreign trade has increased from 20% 10 years ago to 31% in 2017. According to a poll in 2016, 70% of Russians believe that cooperation with countries in the Asia-Pacific region "has more advantages than disadvantages".

  It should be pointed out that Russia’s "looking eastward" is not the product of western sanctions against Russia, but the deterioration of relations with the West has accelerated the pace of Russia’s eastward advancement to some extent. Even so, Europe is still an important trading partner of Russia. In 2017, the trade volume between Russia and EU countries still accounted for more than 40% of Russia’s foreign trade. Therefore, "looking east" does not mean that Russia will give up the West, especially its cooperation with Europe. Russia, like the double-headed eagle on its national emblem, will always focus on both the east and the west, but from the development trend, looking eastward, the vision is wider and the scenery is more beautiful.

  Many overseas media quoted and forwarded "International Sharp Review" articles:

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  On September 12, 2018, Georgia 1TV quoted relevant content or material.

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  On September 12, 2018, Vietnam National Television Channel 1 quoted relevant content or material.

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  Siberian News Network forwarded on September 11, 2018

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  The Facebook account of Bucharest China Review on Tananana Radio in Romania was forwarded on September 11, 2018.

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  India’s "Daily Morning News" website was forwarded on September 11, 2018

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  Iranian People’s Road News Network forwarded on September 11, 2018

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  Facebook account of Myanmar opinion leader media was forwarded on September 12, 2018.

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  The Los Angeles Post website was forwarded on September 11, 2018.

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  The website of Europe-China United Times was forwarded on September 12, 2018.

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  Hong Kong Ta Kung Pao was published on September 12, 2018

Rugby retired and re-employed, Tenet men conquered Nolan by "fighting dad"?

The starring role of "Black 007" that the media and fans have been chanting has not yet appeared. Tenet, which is being shown in cinemas around the world, has made black movie stars the leading role in spy movies ahead of schedule.

You, like James Bond, jason bourne, Ethan Hunt, Jack Ryan and other big-screen agents, saved the world at a critical moment.

Ordinary viewers may be curious, what is this young man who looks like NBA Rockets star Harden? Can become the leading actor of Christopher Nolan’s first spy war blockbuster.

If I told you,

Directed by John David and Nolan

Of course, Nolan can find John David Washington not only because he has a good father. In Hollywood, it is not uncommon for famous people to perform. shine on you is neck and neck with Kirk Douglas and michael douglas, Angelina Jolie and Jon Voight, martin sheen and Charlie Sheen … But more second generation stars are living in the shadow of their successful parents.

John David Washington (hereinafter referred to as John David) is also facing such pressure, but the road he has taken is somewhat special:

Six years before the release of Tenet, John David Washington was not even a professional actor. He was nearly 30 years old before he made up his mind to pursue an acting career, but after that, things went smoothly.

At the age of 34, he starred in "Black Party", which won the Cannes Jury Award and was nominated for the Oscar for Best Film. At the age of 36, he became the first black hero in Nolan’s works.

John David was born on July 28th, 1984. He is the eldest of four children. At the age of seven, he made his big-screen debut in malcolm x, starring his father. He appeared in the last scene of the film with only one line.

Looking back now, John David Washington feels very beautiful: ""

I was with my father when I was a child.

Malcolm x is a film co-produced by father Denzel Hayes Washington Jr. and Spike Lee. Being a star’s child has this advantage, and he can easily make an early appearance in his parents’ movies. Perhaps it was a late maturity. John David didn’t realize how famous his father Denzel Hayes Washington Jr. was until he was 11 years old.

Also in this year, after making a guest appearance in his father’s The Blue Devil, he stayed away from acting since then, because he had other hobbies.

John David’s big screen debut

After entering primary school, John David loved sports most and played football almost every morning. After graduating from primary school, he decided to make professional football players a volunteer.

Now he does not deny that when he made such a choice, he also had the consideration of getting rid of his father’s fame.

The tallest child on the right is John David.

It may seem to outsiders that John David has been living in the shadow of his father, but in an interview with GQ magazine, he said that he had a good time with his father.

"Sometimes my father and I play the trumpet together at home; Sometimes I dye my hair red and learn Arabic, but he won’t say anything. I remember one time, my father would accompany me shopping in new york and suddenly recited the lines from Shakespeare’s Richard III, just like in the movie, but I know he doesn’t usually talk like that. "

John David is with his father.

After entering middle school, John David’s football level has increased rapidly, leaving the category of hobbies, and his determination to break into the NFL (National Football League) has become stronger and stronger.

John David has been struggling for football for so many years, and what he wants most is that, indeed, wearing a helmet on the playground, no one knows who you are, let alone who your father is, and whether you can score or not depends entirely on your strength.

Wear a helmet and no one will know whose son you are.

John David still remembers that when he entered the NFL draft training camp as a student of Morehouse College in Atlanta in 2006, he specially reminded people around him not to tell anyone who his father was, and he wanted to win recognition by his own skills.

But after the first training, he found many people laughing in the lounge. It turned out that the local newspaper in the training camp reported his participation in the training on the front page, and his teammates who were familiar with him said that you couldn’t hide it, and you didn’t just rely on yourself.

John David is wearing a Rams uniform.

This is the helplessness of the famous family, trying hard to get rid of the influence of your father, but the media and the public will not cooperate with you.

In the 2006 NFL draft, he only got the non-draft free contract of the St. Louis Rams (now called the Los Angeles Rams). After three months, he was abandoned and signed up for the second team under the Rams to participate in the NFL European competition as a Rhein Fire player. On the sports field, no one will care who your father is.

John David is on the field.

He calmly judged that his own strength could not keep him on his career path, so he called his mother and hoped to return to the field of acting. But the mother flatly refused, thinking that she could not admit cowardice at this time. She hoped that her son would continue to insist on football and not give up. In 2009, John David switched to the Sacramento Bobcats in the United Football League. During this period, he also took time to participate in the performance of his father’s Book of Avery.

It is not easy for John David to leave football.

In an interview with GQ magazine, he recalled that he returned to his childhood room from the apartment rented by the team in 2013.

"I used to be independent, but it was really a low point at that time. Not only did I lose my job, but my football career was completely over, and everything I wanted was gone." In the two years since he came back from the competition, when he stayed at home doing nothing, he even considered using his sociology diploma to be a teacher.

Stubborn, he doesn’t want to be an actor with his father’s light. Andrew ·Finkelstein, a Washington friend and agent, heard that Denzel’s son had played rugby and asked him if he wanted to try it.

The producer of Players is Jushi Qiang Sen.

When John David was still playing ball, he especially liked watching HBO American dramas, especially Sex and the City and sopranos. For example, he especially liked edie falco’s role as his wife in sopranos, and it was a coincidence that his first acting role as an adult came from HBO.

How did Denzel Hayes Washington Jr. react when he got the chance to get HBO "The Players"?

John David Washington said: "He simply congratulated him, but made a condition that he would shoot a navigation set and then study hard when he came back.".

"Players" stills

After filming the navigation set, John David went to acting school for further study. No matter how good the genetic factor is, it is difficult to succeed without acquired training. Zoe kravitz (daughter of rock star Lanny Kravitz and actress lisa bonet) is his friend, and the two families often get together. She said that John David has become more and more confident in recent years, and she understands each other’s situation very well.

Because Zoe’s situation is very similar, her parents are both big players in the entertainment industry, and it is easier to get help from brokers and get opportunities.

But if you can’t do it well, people will think that you don’t deserve it, and that you are not as good as your parents. The pressure in this respect is much greater than that of ordinary actors.

Christopher Nolan said on many occasions that he chose John David Washington because of The Players and the Black Party directed by Spike Lee.

Tenet studio photo

If the former still depends on his own rugby background, then the latter embodies the advantages of the star father.

Denzel Hayes Washington Jr. and Spike Lee have cooperated many times. John David mentioned a detail: On the day of the script reading meeting of Black Partisans, the poster on the wall behind John David’s seat was Jazz Style, which was co-written by his father and Spike Lee.

Poster of Jazz Style

He said that the scene of the day was very strange. Nolan happened to be sitting next to the director Spike Lee at the premiere of "Black Party" in Cannes in 2018. Many years later, Spike Lee asked him if it was because of this premiere that he made up his mind to choose John David as the leading actor in Tenet. Nolan smiled and said, something like that.

The crew of "Black Party" appeared in Cannes.

In fact, Nolan saw John David’s performance in Players before he went to Cannes. At that time, Nolan didn’t know who he was, let alone who his father was. Nolan said that when he wrote a script, he rarely substituted actors, but when he wrote Tenet, he couldn’t get rid of John David’s appearance in his mind, so he arranged to meet John David, who was filming The Players.

John David and Nolan are talking and laughing.

Nolan said, "I remember that many years ago, James Bond producer Albert R. Broccoli first saw sean connery and decided that he could play Bond. After the meeting, Albert saw Sean Connery leave, like a panther or a cat. "

John David rehearsed for Tenet.

Nolan thinks that John David has some similar conditions, and his athletic ability is especially suitable for the leading actor in Tenet, such as climbing a high-speed fire truck in real shooting and realizing the scene of reversing time fighting.

Even with a background as a professional football player,

He felt that he couldn’t get up in bed several times and thought that he couldn’t finish filming. "Many years ago, I worked hard to keep my job in the NFL, but I didn’t expect to work hard to make a movie again."

But this movie is worth his effort, even if he may get hurt, because many people are rushing to get the job because of the Nolan blockbuster invested by 200 million dollars.

Tenet John David stills

In the years when he appeared in the American TV series "Players", John David deliberately didn’t attend the media publicity activities because he didn’t want to be asked questions about his father.

It was not until the publicity period of "Black Party" that he had to come out to face the reporter. Because the film was shortlisted for Cannes Film Festival, and the next year it was shortlisted for the best film of Oscar, there was a huge amount of public relations activities, which really could not be avoided.

Stills of "Black Party"

There’s another important reason for coming out: Tenet’s release this year saved the trouble, there was no grand premiere, and there was no press conference. The film was finished last autumn, and I saw that the film schedule was postponed again and again, and I was even worried that it would not be on the big screen. Fortunately, in the end, everything went as one wishes.

The father and son took a group photo in the NBA.

Before the release, the Washington family watched the whole film in the empty Warner Company screening hall and were asked what his father thought of his performance. John David Washington said: ""

In fact, while waiting for the release of Tenet, John David was not idle. He secretly starred in the romantic movie Malcolm and Maria with Zendaya, and after challenging crime movies and spy movies, he came to the field of romantic movies.

Still photos of Malcolm and Maria

Undeniably, his father’s influence and connections helped him a lot in "being a late bloomer", but Master led the door and practiced in that person.

How much John David Washington can achieve in the future can only be seen.

Lei Bai 2020 Excellent Agents Cooperation Exchange and Commendation Conference was successfully held.

Go ahead with a sharp edge and open up the market. Lei Bai 2020 Excellent Agents Cooperation, Exchange and Commendation Conference was held in Shenzhen on January 8, 2020. Mr. Ceng Hao, Chairman and General Manager of Shenzhen Lei Bai Science and Technology Co., Ltd., Ms. Yu Xin, Executive Vice President, and Ma Xu, Senior Vice President, attended the meeting and laid out the future with a forward-looking vision with excellent agents from all over the country.
Stick to the initial heart, break the situation and innovate, and achieve win-win growth.
With the transparent and smooth communication mechanism, in 2019, Lei Bai continued to consolidate the harmonious relationship of mutual trust and win-win with agents, and the brand always maintained its mainstream position among peers. The 2019 Lei Bai Science and Technology Excellent Agent Award was specially announced at the conference. Mr. Ceng Hao, Chairman and General Manager of Lei Bai Science and Technology, and Ms. Yu Xin, Executive Vice President, presented honorary certificates, honorary trophies and cash prizes of 100,000 yuan to the representatives of the award-winning agents, which showed that Lei Bai Science and Technology attached great importance to the agents.
Create value and share wealth. Treating each other with sincerity and sharing benefits is gratitude, affirmation and encouragement, and it also conveys the firm belief that Lei Bai will continue to grow stronger, stand together through thick and thin, and win the future with agents. Work together to stabilize the dominant position, and work together to create a new bureau.
Winner list of outstanding agents of Lei Bai Science and Technology in 2019 (in no particular order):
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Improve quality, reduce costs, make profits from channels, and pay close attention to the common development of channels and operations. Driven by multi-dimensions from single product to overall solution, from price to value, from product to service, and from concept to brand communication, Lei Bai will serve customers efficiently and quickly with a more professional attitude, and give the industry the best choice with a comprehensive and rich product line. Realize a truly healthy, profitable and sustainable channel win-win situation.
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When the driving force of consumption presents a diversified development trend and the market is becoming more and more detailed, how to deal with the challenges thrown by the changes of the times? Multi-mode connection in 2018, multi-device connection switching technology, "wireless connection"+"wireless charging" Gemini technology in 2019, and what brand-new strategic plan will Lei Bai face the market in 2020?
Accumulate thick and become a weapon, and seek far-reaching because of the situation. At the meeting, Lei Bai put forward the core strategy of "quality, precision and brand". Increase the launch of high-end series, promote the improvement of product structure, base on the present with strong lineup, innovative design language, cutting-edge interactive experience and flagship performance, break through the limitations, integrate design and technology into life insight through the diversity of boutique life, and redefine personalized user needs.
In 2020, walk with one heart and win-win results.
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Asking nothing about the west and the east: a new trend in the study of medical social history

In recent years, with the epidemic situation in COVID-19 and the changes in international politics, the demand for realistic care for historical research has become increasingly strong, which has attracted academic attention. In order to break the national barriers of medical history research and further strengthen academic exchanges, on the afternoon of November 25, 2023, a youth workshop entitled "No Questions about the West: New Trends in Medical Social History Research" sponsored by the Center for World History and International Drug Control Policy Research of the Department of History of Shanghai University was held in Shanghai. Nearly 20 scholars from Fudan University, Shanghai University, Zhejiang University, Nanjing University, East China Normal University, Shanghai Academy of Social Sciences, Shandong University, Shandong Normal University and Peking Union Medical College, as well as the University of Manchester in England, the University of Heidelberg in Germany and the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign in the United States, attended the conference at the same time, and discussed the frontiers of medical history research from the political, economic, gender, social, knowledge and sensory perspectives.

Group photo of participants

Associate Professor Yang Changyun, deputy dean of the School of Literature of Shanghai University, presided over the opening ceremony and gave a welcome speech. He looked forward to learning from each other in medical history research, helping interdisciplinary research and their dialogue and cooperation, thus expanding the research team of medical history and cultivating the diverse horizons of young scholars’ research. In the special report session, the speaker conducted in-depth exchanges around the two major themes of medical history research: "Oriental vision" and "Western path".

First, the oriental perspective of medical history research

The theme of the first half of the conference was "Oriental Vision of Medical History Research", and the four reports mainly focused on the Middle Ages to modern times, trying to put China’s local medical history research in the perspective of the development of world history and make China voice in the international discourse system.

Jiang Shan (Peking Union Medical College) first reported the paper "The Significance of the Study on the Conceptual History of Acupuncture: Taking Ashi Point as an Example". Jiang Shan pointed out that in the current acupuncture knowledge system, Ashi point belongs to one of the three categories of acupoints. However, this knowledge comes from a folk therapy record in a corner of Qian Jin Fang. How Ashi point rose from the edge of classical literature to the core position of modern acupuncture theory is rarely discussed. Therefore, Jiang Shan traces the origin and conceptual evolution of Ashi point, and thinks that the sudden emergence of Ashi point in China originated from the Republic of China. The modernization and transformation of acupuncture theory in the Republic of China was influenced by Japan to some extent. Japan’s preference for practical technology, theoretical innovation of schools and the subsequent scientific transformation of acupuncture have become three important reasons for changing the theoretical status of Ashi point. With the translation and introduction of Japanese acupuncture textbooks in the Republic of China and the theoretical innovation of doctors in the Republic of China, Ashi point was finally reconstructed into today’s face. Commentators exchanged views with reporters on the practical pursuit of lower-level Chinese medicine, the labeling methods of 25 Chinese-translated Japanese medical books, and the relationship between the adjustment of Ashi point theory and the commercialization of acupuncture therapy.

The report of Gu Yue (Department of History, Shanghai University) is entitled "Liver disease, especially for women": Liver disease as a chronic disease and the painful experience of women in Qing Dynasty. Gu Yue introduced the research method of chronic diseases, studied the painful experience of women suffering from liver diseases in Qing Dynasty, and found that emotion became the explanatory theory of patients and their families. Chronic diseases often reflect the root of social anxiety. Here, liver disease symbolizes an emotional anxiety that women can’t suppress. Gu Yue pointed out that female patients themselves internalized their emotional anxiety into their daily coping strategies for chronic diseases. Commentators discussed the definition of emotional diseases mentioned in the article, the discussion on the correlation between emotions and diseases, and the comparative observation of China society’s control and construction of women’s diseases and their emotions based on the theory of body fluids in the 14th century.

Focusing on modern times, the third speaker, Ji Linghui (School of History, Zhejiang University), wrote a paper entitled "Preliminary Study on Health Technology Cooperation between the League of Nations and the National Government before the outbreak of the All-round Anti-Japanese War". From the perspective of globalization and nationalization, he reorganized the process of health cooperation between the League of Nations and the National Government during the Republic of China. Ji Linghui focused on the extensive health technical cooperation between the two sides before the outbreak of the All-round Anti-Japanese War, including sending experts to China, rebuilding port quarantine, helping the Yangtze River flood, establishing a central laboratory, sending experts to Europe, and pointed out that the health technical cooperation between the Ministry of Health of the League of Nations and the Ministry of Health of the Nanjing National Government was one of the important thrusts for the development of medical and health undertakings in China during the Republic of China. Commentators exchanged views with reporters on the use of archives, the writing of research summary and historical analysis, as well as diplomatic medical cooperation research.

The fourth speaker, Zhang Meng (Center for Science, Technology and Medical History of Manchester University), gave a report entitled "Exploring a new medical model: the Communist Party of China (CPC) and Peking University Medical College before and after the founding of the People’s Republic of China". Zhang Meng believes that there should be a gradual transition stage in the central task of medical and health care from the revolutionary war period to the CPC becoming the ruling party. Commentators exchanged views with reporters on the definition and social role of Chinese medical care in this paper.

Second, the western path of medical history research

The report in the second half of the conference pays attention to the research path of medical history in European countries such as France, Germany and Britain since modern times, and reviews the experience of globalization from the non-localized research materials.

Liu Xiaomeng (Department of History, Fudan University) gave a report entitled "Practical Therapy and Life Experience: Reconstructing the Collection and Production of Medical Prescriptions by French Artisans in Early Modern Times". Focusing on the manuscript numbered Ms. Fr. 640 now in the National Library of France, Liu Xiaomeng made a detailed discussion on 48 medical prescriptions in the manuscript by means of text interpretation and laboratory reconstruction, so as to get a glimpse of the folk medical concepts in early modern Europe and the skills and material culture practiced by craftsmen. The specific case reported by Liu Xiaomeng also shows the importance of reconstruction experiment, and the transformation process of materials in drug preparation is difficult to convey through the medical text itself. This ability to understand the material personally is also the meaning of popular scientific research. The reviewers discussed with the reporter the manuscripts of early modern European workers, the medical concept of ordinary people and the methods of laboratory reconstruction.

Mao Lixia (School of History and Culture, Shandong Normal University) discussed the first victory in the war between human beings and diseases-the eradication of smallpox in 1980 with the title "The beginning of smallpox eradication-on the innovation and practice of smallpox prevention in Britain in the 18th century". Mauritia believes that the eradication of smallpox began with the medical breakthrough and practice of smallpox prevention and control in Britain in the 18th century. At the same time, Mauritia also pointed out that the breakthrough and practice of smallpox prevention and control in Britain is the result of the joint efforts of all walks of life, which shows the public welfare of medicine and the ingenuity of medical practitioners, and then makes the eradication of smallpox from the foresight in the 18th century to the reality in the 20th century. Commentators discussed with the reporter about the orientation of the article, the awareness of problems and the beginning of smallpox eradication.

The report of Gu Nianmao (Department of History, East China Normal University) is entitled "robert koch and the Laboratory Turn of German Medicine in 19th Century". Gu Nianmao first explained the origin of writing this article, and his post-doctoral experience on the production and international dissemination of German bacteriology knowledge. Gu Nianmao believes that after the 1840s and 1950s, modern medicine took a "laboratory turn", from French clinical medicine focusing on pathological anatomy and clinical observation to German laboratory medicine advocating experimental reduction and regular analysis, which jointly promoted the development of modern medical science. Gu Nianmao pointed out that robert koch has made pioneering achievements in the pathogenicity of bacteria and the research methods of laboratory bacteriology, and made great efforts to promote the knowledge transfer between new laboratory discoveries and clinical treatment. The reviewers exchanged views with the reporter on the writing methods, compactness and relevance of the contents of the paper, and the countries and regions of medical social history research.

An Yongna (Department of History, Shanghai University)’ s report is entitled "The Debate over the Image of Alcoholics and the Turn of Social Governance in 19th Century Britain". An Yongna pointed out that alcoholism was a high-frequency word in British public discourse in the 19th century, but the definition of alcoholics was complicated and complicated. An Yongna believes that the increasingly serious crime of alcoholism threatens social order, and a series of spillover effects forced the British government to adjust its governance direction in the mid-19th century. On the one hand, it actively cooperated with the humanitarian public opinion of moral reform, and on the other hand, it promulgated the Insanity Act, so the Royal Madhouse became a place to legally accommodate alcoholics. The high incidence and recurrence rate of alcoholism made the Royal Madhouse, which depended on donations for its livelihood, unable to withstand its economic pressure in the late 19th century. Therefore, doctors used the right to speak on alcoholism in medicine and petitioned for another special law to manage alcoholics. In the 19th century, the multiple reversals of the image of alcoholics outlined the exploration and transformation of the British government’s governance model in the industrialization period. Commentators discussed the definition of drinking and alcoholism, the areas involved in the article and some wording with the speaker.

After the two keynote speeches, the workshop entered a round-table discussion session. Xiang Rong, Professor of History Department of Fudan University, Fan-Xiang Min, Professor of History Department of Nanjing University, Zou Xiang, Professor of History and Culture College of Shandong University, and Yongan Zhang, Professor of History Department of Shanghai University, and other experts and scholars focused on the theme of this workshop, "No Questions about the West: A New Trend of Medical Social History Research".

Professor Xiangrong regrets the great development and changes in the study of medical social history in recent years. Based on his own experience of studying PhD in Britain in 1990s, and then coming into contact with medical history, Professor Xiangrong pointed out that the research of medical social history is becoming more and more mature, and researchers have already gone beyond the general "top-down" or "bottom-up" research path, but are more thorough and in-depth. Medical social history is becoming an independent research direction, which is also related to two profound public health tests in China-SARS and COVID-19 epidemic. Later, Professor Xiangrong contacted the theme of the conference, "Ask nothing about the West", and pointed out the necessity and importance of breaking the boundary between world history and China history.

Professor Fan-Xiang Min put forward his own views on the national boundaries of medical social history. Professor Fan-Xiang Min said that the reason why we pay attention to the national topic of medical social history is not to make medical social history a national history, but to notice that the Chinese literary circles don’t know enough about the medical social history of some countries, such as French medical social history. We should pay more attention to the research of medical social history in these countries, and introduce their research methods and theories to domestic scholars, so as to promote the full integration of domestic medical social history research with the world. In addition, Professor Fan-Xiang Min believes that medical care and diseases are common problems faced by human beings, and the global spread of medicine is very rapid, but there are also countries and regions in the process of communication. If we overemphasize regions and countries, we can’t get a glimpse of the whole study of medical social history; At present, English-speaking countries dominate the research of medical history in China’s world historians, while other countries are relatively rare. If we ignore the study of medical social history in some language areas (such as Spanish-speaking areas), we will also fall into the trap of a blind eye. As for the research object of medical history, Mr. Fan-Xiang Min thinks that traditionally we are confined to orthodox medicine and medical system, and the medicine outside orthodox medicine, such as how ordinary patients seek medical advice, is often neglected.

Professor Zou Xiang talked about his feelings from the aspect of thesis writing. Based on his years of research experience, Professor Zou Xiang further pointed out that the research of medical social history should be problem-oriented and run through the whole paper, rather than deliberately following the national boundaries, because the history of bacteria and viruses will not follow the national development. Based on her visiting experience in Oxford, Mr. Zou Xiang put forward a point that needs attention, that is, writing historical papers should adhere to the historical method and should not be easily influenced by the writing methods of other disciplines. This has also aroused the high approval of Professor Xiangrong, who believes that in the process of studying medical social history from an interdisciplinary perspective, we should especially stick to the disciplinary position of history.

At the end of the meeting, Professor Yongan Zhang made a concluding speech. Professor Yongan Zhang pointed out that a small-scale workshop for young scholars is beneficial for young scholars to communicate with each other, build their own academic network, and learn from outstanding peers, so as to motivate themselves to make continuous progress on the academic road. As for the theme of this workshop-"No Questions, West and East: A New Trend of Medical Social History Research", Professor Yongan Zhang said that he chose this topic because the research of medical social history is problem-oriented and really needs to break the boundary, so as to help us find and discuss problems. In addition, breaking the boundaries between disciplines is beneficial for humanities to use many concepts pioneered by science and engineering, which may help promote our current research. Professor Yongan Zhang also pointed out that the study of medical social history has been in full swing in the west. In Britain, almost all higher-level schools have a strong medical social history team, and medical social history is also a hot direction of humanities research. In the United States, many scholars who have received systematic medical training conduct medical humanities research. It is necessary to learn from each other in the study of medical social history. In addition, Professor Yongan Zhang expressed his delight at the discussion and exchange in this workshop: young scholars are really "learning from the west without asking questions", trying to break the boundaries between disciplines and countries in the research process, and at the same time trying to enrich their research by using multi-source files and multi-country and multi-language materials. At the same time, Professor Yongan Zhang also raised two questions. First, we should strive to do research that can attract the attention and recognition of the academic circles in the target countries, so as to expand the influence of research. Second, we should advocate more transnational and cross-regional research.And pay attention to putting China in the field of vision, so that more breakthroughs may be made. Finally, Professor Yongan Zhang expressed his expectation for the future workshop for young scholars, hoping that more different scholars would participate in the exchange and spark more thoughts.